Introduction : Instrumented gait mat systems have been regarded as one of the gold standard methods for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters. However, their portable walkways confine walking to a restricted area and limit the number of gait cycles collected. Wearable inertial sensors are a potential alternative that allow more natural walking behavior and have fewer space restrictions. The objective of this pilot study was to establish the concurrent validity of body-worn sensors against the portable walkway system in older children. Methods : Twenty-one participants (10 males) 7–17 years old performed 2-min walk tests at a self-selected and fast pace in a 25-m-long hallway, while wearing three inertial sensors. Data collection were synchronized between devices and the portions of the walk when subjects passed on the walkway were used to compare gait speed, stride length, gait cycle duration, cadence, and double support time. Regression models and Bland–Altman analysis were completed to determine agreement between systems for the selected gait parameters. Results : Gait speed, cadence, gait cycle duration, and stride length as measured by inertial sensors demonstrated strong agreement overall. Double support time was found to have lower validity due to a combined bias of age, height, weight, and walking pace. Conclusion : These results support the validity of wearable inertial sensors in measuring gait speed, cadence, gait cycle duration, and stride length in children 7 years old and above during a 2-min walking test. Future studies are warranted with a broader age range to thoroughly represent the pediatric population.
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Vincent Shieh, Cris Zampieri, Ashwini Sansare, John Collins, Thomas C. Bulea, and Minal Jain
Mark S. Tremblay, Silvia A. Gonzalez, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Vincent O. Onywera, and John. J. Reilly
Mark S. Tremblay, Joel D. Barnes, Silvia A. González, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Vincent O. Onywera, John J. Reilly, Grant R. Tomkinson, and the Global Matrix 2.0 Research Team
The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world’s population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments), and all Report Cards were generated through a harmonized development process and a standardized grading framework (from A = excellent, to F = failing). The 38 Report Cards were presented at the International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health in Bangkok, Thailand on November 16, 2016. The consolidated findings are summarized in the form of a Global Matrix demonstrating substantial variation in grades both within and across countries. Countries that lead in certain indicators often lag in others. Average grades for both Overall Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior around the world are D (low/poor). In contrast, the average grade for indicators related to supports for physical activity was C. Lower-income countries generally had better grades on Overall Physical Activity, Active Transportation, and Sedentary Behaviors compared with higher-income countries, yet worse grades for supports from Family and Peers, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Average grades for all indicators combined were highest (best) in Denmark, Slovenia, and the Netherlands. Many surveillance and research gaps were apparent, especially for the Active Play and Family and Peers indicators. International cooperation and cross-fertilization is encouraged to address existing challenges, understand underlying determinants, conceive innovative solutions, and mitigate the global childhood inactivity crisis. The paradox of higher physical activity and lower sedentary behavior in countries reporting poorer infrastructure, and lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior in countries reporting better infrastructure, suggests that autonomy to play, travel, or chore requirements and/or fewer attractive sedentary pursuits, rather than infrastructure and structured activities, may facilitate higher levels of physical activity.
Mark S. Tremblay, Silvia A. Gonzalez, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Vincent O. Onywera, John J. Reilly, and Grant Tomkinson
Mark S. Tremblay, Casey E. Gray, Kingsley Akinroye, Dierdre M. Harrington, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Estelle V. Lambert, Jarmo Liukkonen, Ralph Maddison, Reginald T. Ocansey, Vincent O. Onywera, Antonio Prista, John J. Reilly, María del Pilar Rodríguez Martínez, Olga L. Sarmiento Duenas, Martyn Standage, and Grant Tomkinson
The Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth has been effective in powering the movement to get kids moving by influencing priorities, policies, and practice in Canada. The AHKC Report Card process was replicated in 14 additional countries from 5 continents using 9 common indicators (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, Family and Peers, School, Community and Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments), a harmonized process and a standardized grading framework. The 15 Report Cards were presented at the Global Summit on the Physical Activity of Children in Toronto on May 20, 2014. The consolidated findings are summarized here in the form of a global matrix of grades. There is a large spread in grades across countries for most indicators. Countries that lead in certain indicators lag in others. Overall, the grades for indicators of physical activity (PA) around the world are low/poor. Many countries have insufficient information to assign a grade, particularly for the Active Play and Family and Peers indicators. Grades for Sedentary Behaviors are, in general, better in low income countries. The Community and Built Environment indicator received high grades in high income countries and notably lower grades in low income countries. There was a pattern of higher PA and lower sedentary behavior in countries reporting poorer infrastructure, and lower PA and higher sedentary behavior in countries reporting better infrastructure, which presents an interesting paradox. Many surveillance and research gaps and weaknesses were apparent. International cooperation and cross-fertilization is encouraged to tackle existing challenges, understand underlying mechanisms, derive innovative solutions, and overcome the expanding childhood inactivity crisis.