This study examined the effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) supplementation on signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise. Six non-resistance trained male subjects performed an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle damage on two separate occasions, performed on the dominant or non-dominant arm in a counter-balanced crossover design. Subjects were assigned to an HMB/KIC (3 g HMB and 0.3 g α-ketoisocaproic acid, daily) or placebo treatment for 14 d prior to exercise in the counter-balanced crossover design. One repetition maximum (1RM), plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girth, and range of motion (ROM) were determined pre-exercise, at 1h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-exercise. DOMS and the percentage changes in 1RM, limb girth, and ROM all changed over the 72 h period (P < 0.05). HMB/KIC supplementation attenuated the CK response, the percentage decrement in 1RM, and the percentage increase in limb girth (P < 0.05). In addition, DOMS was reduced at 24 h post-exercise (P < 0.05) in the HMB/KIC treatment. In conclusion, 14 d of HMB and KIC supplementation reduced signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in non-resistance trained males following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise.
Ken A. van Someren, Adam J. Edwards, and Glyn Howatson
Karianne Backx, Ken A. van Someren, and Garry S. Palmer
This study investigated the effect of differing fluid volumes consumed during exercise, on cycle time-trial (TT) performance conducted under thermoneutral conditions (20 °C, 70% RH). Ten minutes after consuming a bolus of 6 ml · kg−1 body mass (BM) of a 6.4% CHO solution and immediately following a warm-up, 8 male cyclists undertook a 1-h self-paced TT on 4 separate occasions. During a “familiarization” trial, subjects were given three 5-min periods (15– 20 min, 30–35 min, and 45–50 min) to consume fluid ad libitum. Thereafter subjects undertook, in random order, trials consuming high (HF), moderate (MF), or low fluid (LF) volumes, where 300, 150, and 40 ml of fluid were consumed at 15, 30, and 45 min of each trial, respectively, and total CHO intake was maintained at 57.6 g. During exercise, power output and heart rate were monitored continuously, whilst stomach fullness was rated every 10 min. Additionally, BM loss and BM loss corrected for fluid intake was calculated during each trial. At 40, 50, and 60 min differences in ratings of stomach fullness were found between trials (LF vs. HF and MF vs. HF). There were however no differences in performance or physiological variables (heart rate or BM loss) between trials. These results indicate that when a pre-exercise CHO bolus is consumed, there is no effect of subsequent consumption of different fluid volumes when trained cyclists undertake a 1-h performance task in a thermoneutral environment.