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Luis Columna, Margarita Fernández-Vivó, Lauren Lieberman, and Katrina Arndt

Background:

Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp.

Methods:

Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis.

Results:

Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits.

Conclusions:

There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.

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Lauren J. Lieberman, Cathy Houston-Wilson, and Francis M. Kozub

The purpose of this study was to examine barriers perceived by teachers when including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Teachers (52 males, 96 females) who had children with visual impairments in their physical education classes were surveyed prior to in-service workshop participation. The most prevalent barriers were professional preparation, equipment, programming, and time. A logistic regression analysis, regressing gender, in-service training, number of students with visual impairments taught, masters degree attained, masters hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), undergraduate hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), and years of experience failed to indicate significant predictors of professional preparation as a barrier, Model χ2 (6, n = 148) = 4.48, p > .05.

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Donna L. Goodwin, Lauren J. Lieberman, Keith Johnston, and Jennifer Leo

The social meaning of a one-week residential summer sports camp to young people with visual impairments is described. The experiences of 13 youths (7 females and 6 males) with visual impairments (3 B1, 1 B2, and 9 B3) between 9 and 15 years of age were gathered using the phenomenological methods of focus groups, conversational interviews, and field notes. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: connected, reaching out, and resisting and acquiescing. Experiences of group membership and shared emotional connection to others with visual impairments surfaced in a supportive sport context although resistance to others’ assumptions of ability was evident. The theory of psychological sense of community (McMillan & Chivas, 1986) provided the conceptual framework for interpreting the findings.

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Pamela Haibach-Beach, Melanie Perreault, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Alexandra Stribing

Children with CHARGE syndrome, an extremely complex, highly variable genetic disorder, are significantly delayed in the onset of their motor milestones in comparison with children without disabilities due to sensory and motor deficits as well as lengthy hospitalizations and reduced physical activity. Currently, the role of parents’ perceptions and participation in the motor development of their child with CHARGE is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between parents’ perceptions and their child’s motor competence, comparing parents of children with and without CHARGE syndrome. Participants included 33 children with CHARGE and 38 children without disabilities. Parents completed the Child’s Movement Skills Research parent survey and children were assessed on their gross motor skills. Parental ratings of locomotor ability and time spent participating with their child predicted the locomotor, ball skill, and total motor skill scores in the CHARGE group. Control group parents’ rating of ball scores predicted ball skill and total skill scores. The results indicate that parents may play an important role in their child with CHARGE syndrome’s motor development. Parents who are more involved with their child’s movement activities can positively influence their motor competence.

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Alexandra Stribing, Adam Pennell, Emily N. Gilbert, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Ali Brian

Individuals with visual impairments (VI) trend toward lower motor competence when compared with peers without VI. Various forms of perception often affects motor competence. Thus, it is important to explore factors that influence forms of perception and their differential effects on motor competence for those with VI. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to explore and describe the differential effects of age, gender, and degree of vision on self-perceptions, parents’ perceptions, metaperceptions, and locomotor skills, and to examine potential associations among all variables with actual locomotor competence for adolescents with VI. Adolescents with VI completed two questionnaires and the Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Edition. Parents completed a parent perception questionnaire. Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H analyses showed no differential effects for gender or age on any dependent measures. Degree of vision affected locomotor skills, but not any other factor. Spearman rho correlations showed significant associations among locomotor and self-perceptions, degree of vision and locomotor, and metaperceptions with parents’ perceptions. Adolescents reported relatively high self-perceptions and metaperceptions; however, their actual locomotor competence and parents’ perceptions were relatively low. Findings may help situate future intervention strategies targeting parents supporting their children’s locomotor skills through self-perceptions.

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley, and Sara Santarossa

Results of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) consistently show acceptable validity and reliability for children/adolescents who are sighted and those who have visual impairments. Results of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) are often valid and reliable for children who are sighted, but its psychometric properties are unknown for children with visual impairments. Participants (N = 66; M age = 12.93, SD = 2.40) with visual impairments completed the TGMD-2 and TGMD-3. The TGMD-3 results from this sample revealed high internal consistency (ω = .89–.95), strong interrater reliability (ICC = .91–.92), convergence with the TGMD-2 (r = .96), and good model fit, χ2(63) = 80.10, p = .072, χ2/df ratio = 1.27, RMSEA = .06, CFI = .97. Researchers and practitioners can use the TGMD-3 to assess the motor skill performance for children/adolescents with visual impairments and most likely produce results that are valid and reliable.

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Sally Taunton Miedema, Ali Brian, Adam Pennell, Lauren Lieberman, Larissa True, Collin Webster, and David Stodden

Many interventions feature a singular component approach to targeting children’s motor competency and proficiency. Yet, little is known about the use of integrative interventions to meet the complex developmental needs of children aged 3–6 years. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an integrative universally designed intervention on children with and without disabilities’ motor competency and proficiency. We selected children (N = 111; disability = 24; no disability = 87) to participate in either a school-based integrative motor intervention (n = 53) or a control condition (n = 58). Children in the integrative motor intervention both with and without disabilities showed significant improvement in motor competency and proficiency (p < .001) as compared with peers with and without disabilities in a control condition. Early childhood center directors (e.g., preschool and kindergarten) should consider implementing integrative universally designed interventions targeting multiple aspects of motor development to remediate delays in children with and without disabilities.

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Lauren J. Lieberman, John M. Dunn, Hans Van der Mars, and Jeff McCubbin

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of trained peer tutors on the physical activity levels of deaf students1 in inclusive elementary physical education classes. A single subject delayed multiple baseline design across 8 deaf participants (4 boys and 4 girls) ages 10 to 12 was used. Eight typically developing, trained peers of the same age and gender served as peer tutors following training in use of sign language and basic teaching strategies. The dependent variable was moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) determined by McKenzie, Sallis and Nader’s (1991) System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). The study included 3–4 sessions of baseline, 11–14 sessions of intervention, and 1–3 sessions of maintenance. Results revealed that after the introduction of peer tutoring, deaf students increased their MVPA from to 22% to 41.5%, and peer tutors increased their MVPA from 19% to 37.9%.

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Michael W. Beets, John T. Foley, Daniel W.S. Tindall, and Lauren J. Lieberman

Thirty-five youth with visual impairments (13.5 ± 2.1yrs, 13 girls and 22 boys) walked four 100-meter distances while wearing two units (right and left placement) of three brands of voice-announcement (VA) pedometers (CentriosTM Talking Pedometer, TALKiNG Pedometer, and Sportline Talking Calorie Pedometer 343) and a reference pedometer (NL2000). Registered pedometer steps for each trial were recorded, compared to actual steps assessed via digital video. Inter-unit agreement between right and left VA pedometer placement was low (ICC range .37 to .76). A systematic error was observed for the VA pedometers on the left placement (error range 5.6% to 12.2%), while right placement VA pedometers were at or below ± 3% from actual steps (range 2.1% to 3.3%). The reference pedometer was unaffected by placement (ICC .98, error ~1.4%). Overall, VA pedometers demonstrated acceptable accuracy for the right placement, suggesting this position is necessary for youth with visual impairments.