A national job analysis was conducted to determine the preparation perceptions, job demographics, and decision-making roles of adapted physical educators (APEs). Participants were 293 teachers, representing a 51% return rate. Most had master’s degrees in physical education, an average of 10 years teaching experience in APE, and APE job titles. Teachers emphasized a greater need for training in teaching, motor development, and continuing education. Most respondents worked in urban settings (56%), served an average of 4.4 schools, and reported an average caseload of 104 students. Teachers worked an average of 36.1 hr per week. Of this time, 52% was spent providing direct APE services and 26% providing indirect APE instruction. Teachers worked with all age groups and all degrees of disabilities. Findings were discussed in relation to the 219 APEs taking the first national APE certification examination in 1997, professional preparation concerns, and service delivery issues.
Luke E. Kelly and Bruce Gansneder
Luke E. Kelly and James H. Rimmer
The subjects were 170 moderately and severely mentally retarded men who were divided into two groups. The first group was used to formulate a new prediction equation and the second group was used to cross-validate and ascertain the stability of the derived equation. The prediction equation, employing waist and forearm circumferences, height and weight as predictors, and estimated percent body fat calculated by the generalized regression equation of Jackson and Pollock (1978) as the criterion measure, was formulated using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. A multiple R value of .86 was obtained for the derived equation with a standard error of estimate value of 3.35. The equation was cross-validated on the second sample to ascertain its stability. An r of .81 and a standard error of estimate of 4.41 was obtained between the subjects’ estimated percent body fat, using the new equation, and the criterion measure. This simplified equation provides practitioners with an accurate, reliable, and inexpensive method of estimating percent body fat for adult mentally retarded males.
James H. Rimmer and Luke E. Kelly
The purpose of this pilot study was to descriptively evaluate the effects of three different programs on the development of gross motor skills of preschool children with learning disabilities (n = 29). No attempt was made to equate the groups or control for differences between the programs or instructional staff. Two of the programs were used by the respective schools to develop the gross motor skills of their audience. The programs were called occupational therapy (OT) (45–60 min/day, 5 days/week) and adapted physical education (APE) (30 min/day, 4 days/week). A third group was evaluated to determine whether maturational effects had any involvement in gross motor development. This group was called the noninstructional program (NIP) (30 min/day, 2 days/week) and was solely involved in free play. The programs were all in session for the entire school year (33–35 weeks). The results of the study revealed that the children in the APE program made more significant gains across objectives, and particularly on the qualitative measures, than did the children in the OT or NIP groups.
James H. Rimmer and Luke E. Kelly
Very low levels of strength and muscular endurance have been reported in adults with mental retardation. A progressive resistance training program was developed for a group of adults with mental retardation (ages 23-49 yrs) using state-of-the-art equipment (Nautilus Isokinetic Systems). A MANCOVA analysis was employed to determine the differences between control and experimental groups. The analysis revealed a significant overall group effect. Subsequent univariate ANCOVA analyses were performed to isolate the significant dependent measures. Results indicated that a 2-day-a-week resistance training program was effective in improving the strength levels of this population. It was also revealed that the resistance training program was favorably received by the participants and could be performed with minimal assistance. Service providers for the mentally retarded should consider community based weight training facilities as a viable avenue for improving the strength levels of this population.
Luke E. Kelly, James H. Rimmer, and Richard A. Ness
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the percent body fat of 553 institutionalized mentally retarded adults, ages 18 to 40 yrs, from the Denton State School in Texas. The subjects included 343 males and 210 females. Their percent body fat was estimated with generalized regression equations. Body density for males was measured by the sum of three skinfolds, two girths, and age. Body density for females was measured by the sum of three skinfolds and age. The results from this study revealed that 45.2% of the males and 50.5% of the females were obese. The percent body fat of the female subjects was significantly greater than that of the male subjects. A post hoc analysis revealed that profoundly mentally retarded subjects had significantly lower percent body fat than those subjects functioning at the severe and mild levels. These findings indicate a serious need for more investigation of the caloric intake and expenditure of this population in an institutional environment.
Wesley J. Wilson, Ali Brian, and Luke E. Kelly
Novice teachers struggle with assessing fundamental motor skills. With growing time constraints, not to mention the current COVID-19 pandemic, professional development needs to be streamlined, asynchronous, and online to meet the needs of current teachers. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of the Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP) in increasing the assessment competency of the underhand roll among physical educators and to examine which factors associated with posttest assessment scores. Twenty-nine physical educators (female = 21, male = 8) completed the program. Paired sample t tests were used to determine the efficacy of the program in improving assessment accuracy from pretest to posttest. Associations between posttest scores assessed which factors predicted success within the program addressing feasibility. Program completion resulted in significantly better posttest assessment scores among participants. Guided practice attempts and average scores on guided practice tests correlated most strongly and positively with posttest scores. The assessment training program increased the assessment competency of physical educators. Guided practice and using practice tests best predicted participant learning. Now that the MSAP results with teacher learning and is feasible, this efficacy trial should be scaled up to feature a control group and more skills.