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Bradley J. Cardinal and Marita K. Cardinal

The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) offers a safe preexercise screening of participants prior to physical activity involvement. However, the measure seems to screen out a relatively high proportion of apparently healthy older adults. In an attempt to improve this situation, an expert panel convened by Fitness Canada worked to revise the measure (rPARQ). The present study compares the number of exclusions resulting from the original and revised PARQ instruments in older adults (84 men, 85 women; M age 76.5 yrs). The number of participants screened out by the rPARQ decreased significantly (p < .001), from 139 to 105. Agreement between measures was achieved in 78.7% of the participants (Cohen's kappa = .50). In an effort to promote physical activity involvement, researchers and practitioners are encouraged to consider the use of the recently developed rPARQ over the PARQ as a preexercise screening alternative.

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Bradley J. Cardinal, Eugene A. Park, MooSong Kim, and Marita K. Cardinal


This study provides an update on the amount and type of physical activity education occurring in medical education in the United States in 2013. It is the first study to do so since 2002.


Applying content analysis methodology, we reviewed all accessible accredited doctor of medicine and doctor of osteopathic medicine institutions’ websites for physical activity education related coursework (N = 118 fully accessible; 69.41%).


The majority of institutions did not offer any physical activity education–related courses. When offered, they were rarely required. Courses addressing sports medicine and exercise physiology were offered more than courses in other content domains. Most courses were taught using a clinical approach. No differences were observed between MD and DO institutions, or between private and public institutions.


More than one-half of the physicians trained in the United States in 2013 received no formal education in physical activity and may, therefore, be ill-prepared to assist their patients in a manner consistent with Healthy People 2020, the National Physical Activity Plan, or the Exercise is Medicine initiative. The Bipartisan Policy Center, American College of Sports Medicine, and the Alliance for a Healthier Generation called for a reversal of this situation on June 23, 2014.