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Sarah K. Keadle, Eduardo E. Bustamante, and Matthew P. Buman

Over the past 40 years, physical activity (PA) and public health has been established as a field of study. A robust evidence base has emerged demonstrating that participation in recommended amounts of PA results in a wide array of physical and mental health benefits. This led to the establishment of federal and global PA guidelines and surveillance programs. Strong evidence supports the efficacy of individual-level (e.g., goal setting) and environmental (e.g., policies) interventions to promote PA. There has also been progress in establishing a skilled and diverse workforce to execute the work of PA and public health. Looking forward, major challenges include stemming the obesity and chronic disease epidemics, addressing health inequities, and diversifying the workforce. Given the known benefits of PA and the availability of evidence-based interventions, efforts now must focus on implementing this knowledge to improve population health and reduce inequities through PA.

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Eduardo Salazar, Mayank Gupta, Meynard Toledo, Qiao Wang, Pavan Turaga, James M. Parish, and Matthew P. Buman

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an under-diagnosed risk factor for several adverse health outcomes. The gold standard diagnostic test for OSA is laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG). Portable sleep monitoring has been studied as an alternative for patients lacking access to PSG. This study aimed to assess the validity of the Zephyr BioHarness 3 (BH3), a chest-worn activity monitor that records movement, electrocardiography, and respiratory parameters, to identify apnea events in patients suspected of OSA. Patients (N = 18) underwent single-night laboratory-based PSG while wearing the BH3. PSG data were scored in 30-second epochs by PSG technicians. PSG and BH3 data were sampled and analyzed using three sets of features with a radial basis function support vector machine and three-layer neural networks: (1) apnea events were identified second by second using 5-second windows of raw BH3 data (sensitivity = 48.0 ± 8.7%, specificity = 75.6 ± 3.0%, accuracy = 74.4 ± 2.7%); (2) apnea events were identified second by second using mean, median, and variance values of 5-second windows of BH3 data (sensitivity = 54.7 ± 17.3%, specificity = 66.5 ± 12.1%, accuracy = 66.0 ± 10.9%); and (3) apnea events were identified second by second using phase-space transformation of BH3 data (sensitivity = 68.4 ± 9.0%, specificity = 81.5 ± 2.7%, accuracy = 80.9 ±2.5% for τ = 60; sensitivity = 64.0 ± 7.9%, specificity = 81.8 ± 2.5%, accuracy = 81.0 ± 2.3% for τ = 70). The BH3 may be useful for patients suspected of OSA without timely access to PSG.

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Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Matthew P. Buman, Kimberly J. Romney, Monica R. Klatt, and Mari J. Stoddard

The purpose of this review was to evaluate the scope, impact, and methods of research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in kinesiology departments. Information was obtained from university websites, the Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT), PubMed, Google Scholar, and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) from the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge. Abstracts from 2,227 published studies funded by the NIH were reviewed. The National Institute on Aging funded the largest portion of grants. Metabolic functioning, the nervous system, pathology, and cardiovascular diseases were the major foci. Human and animal studies were predominantly discovery-oriented (e.g., comparative studies, clinical research) with a large percentage of translational approaches. Recommendations for interdisciplinary research are provided.

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Jennifer L. Huberty, Jeni L. Matthews, Meynard Toledo, Lindsay Smith, Catherine L. Jarrett, Benjamin Duncan, and Matthew P. Buman

Purpose: To estimate the energy expenditure (EE) of Vinyasa Flow and validate the Actigraph (AG) and GENEActiv (GA) for measuring EE in Vinyasa Flow. Methods: Participants (N = 22) were fitted to a mask attached to the Oxycon. An AG was placed on the left hip and a GA was placed on the non-dominant wrist. Participants were randomized to an initial resting activity before completing a 30-minute Vinyasa Flow video. AG data was scored using the Freedson VM3 (2011) and the Freedson Adult (1998) algorithms in the Actilife software platform. EE from GA were derived using cut points from a previous study. Date and time filters were added corresponding to the time stamps recorded by the tablet video files of each yoga session. Kcals and METs expended by participants were calculated using bodyweight measured during their visit. Data was analyzed using SPSS. A dependent samples t-test, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and mean absolute difference were used to determine agreement between variables. Results: According to the Oxycon, participation in Vinyasa Flow required an average EE of 3.2 ± 0.4 METs. The absolute agreement between the Oxycon, AG, or GA was poor (ICC < .20). The mean difference in METs for the AG was −2.1 ± 0.6 and GA was −1.4 ± 0.6 (all p < .01). Conclusion: According to the Oxycon, participation in Vinyasa Flow met the criteria for moderate-intensity physical activity. The AG and GA consistently underestimated EE. More research is needed to determine an accurate measurement for EE during yoga using a wearable device appropriate for free-living environments.

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Paddy C. Dempsey, Christine M. Friedenreich, Michael F. Leitzmann, Matthew P. Buman, Estelle Lambert, Juana Willumsen, and Fiona Bull

Background: In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) released global guidelines on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior, for the first time providing population-based recommendations for people living with selected chronic conditions. This article briefly presents the guidelines, related processes and evidence, and, importantly, considers how they may be used to support research, practice, and policy. Methods: A brief overview of the scope, agreed methods, selected chronic conditions (adults living with cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and human immunodeficiency virus), and appraisal of systematic review evidence on PA/sedentary behavior is provided. Methods were consistent with World Health Organization protocols for developing guidelines. Results: Moderate to high certainty evidence (varying by chronic condition and outcome examined) supported that PA can reduce the risk of disease progression or premature mortality and improve physical function and quality of life in adults living with chronic conditions. Direct evidence on sedentary behavior was lacking; however, evidence extrapolated from adult populations was considered applicable, safe, and likely beneficial (low certainty due to indirectness). Conclusions: Clinical and public health professionals and policy makers should promote the World Health Organization 2020 global guidelines and develop and implement services and programs to increase PA and limit sedentary behavior in adults living with chronic conditions.

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Matthew P. Buman, Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Joseph M. Dzierzewski, Adrienne Aiken Morgan, Christina S. McCrae, Beverly L. Roberts, and Michael Marsiske

Background:

Using peer volunteers as delivery agents may improve translation of evidence-based physical activity promotion programs for older adults. This study examined whether tailored support from older peer volunteers could improve initiation and long-term maintenance of physical activity behavior.

Methods:

Participants were randomized to 2 16-week, group-based programs: (1) peer-delivered, theory-based support for physical activity behavior change; or (2) an intervention typically available in community settings (basic education, gym membership, and pedometer for self-monitoring), attention-matched with health education. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed via daily self-report logs at baseline, at the end of the intervention (16 weeks), and at follow-up (18 months), with accelerometry validation (RT3) in a random subsample.

Results:

Seven peer volunteers and 81 sedentary adults were recruited. Retention at the end of the trial was 85% and follow-up at 18 months was 61%. Using intent-to-treat analyses, at 16 weeks, both groups had similar significant improvements in MVPA. At 18 months, the group supplemented with peer support had significantly more MVPA.

Conclusions:

Trained peer volunteers may enhance long-term maintenance of physical activity gains from a community-based intervention. This approach has great potential to be adapted and delivered inexpensively in community settings.

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Eric B. Hekler, Matthew P. Buman, William L. Haskell, Terry L. Conway, Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, and Abby C. King

Background:

Recent research highlights the potential value of differentiating between categories of physical activity intensities as predictors of health and well-being. This study sought to assess reliability and concurrent validity of sedentary (ie, 1 METs), low-light (ie, >1 and ≤2 METs; eg, playing cards), high-light (ie, >2 and <3 METs; eg, light walking), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ≥3 METs), and “total activity” (≥2 METs) from the CHAMPS survey. Further, this study explored over-reporting and double-reporting.

Methods:

CHAMPS data were gathered from the Seniors Neighborhood Quality of Life Study, an observational study of adults aged 65+ years conducted in 2 US regions.

Results:

Participants (N = 870) were 75.3 ± 6.8 years old, with 56% women and 71% white. The CHAMPS sedentary, low-light, high-light, total activity, and MVPA variables had acceptable test-retest reliability (ICCs 0.56−0.70). The CHAMPS high-light (ρ = 0.27), total activity (ρ = 0.34), and MVPA (ρ = 0.37) duration scales were moderately associated with accelerometry minutes of corresponding intensity, and the sedentary scale (ρ = 0.12) had a lower, but significant correlation. Results suggested that several CHAMPS items may be susceptible to over-reporting (eg, walking, housework).

Conclusions:

CHAMPS items effectively measured high-light, total activity, and MVPA in seniors, but further refinement is needed for sedentary and low-light activity.