This study compared deep diaphragmatic breathing (DB) versus paced breathing and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on indices of physiological stress reactivity in 76 varsity athletes. Athletes were trained in paced breathing, and then randomized to either DB or PMR, and underwent a cognitive stressor task. DB resulted in significantly higher tidal volume compared to PMR and paced breathing. DB also resulted in lower heart rate than PMR. Finally, DB resulted in significantly higher heart rate variability (HRV) than PMR, but not compared to simple paced breathing. Both groups reported feeling significantly more relaxed after the intervention than after paced breathing. The DB group reported a trend toward greater relaxation than the PMR group. Slow DB is an easy to teach tool that may give athletes an edge on successfully managing stress reactivity, whether they are preparing for a test or for competition.
Melissa G. Hunt, James Rushton, Elyse Shenberger, and Sarah Murayama
Melissa Pangelinan, Marc Norcross, Megan MacDonald, Mary Rudisill, Danielle Wadsworth, and James McDonald
Experiential learning provides undergraduate students rich opportunities to enhance their knowledge of core concepts in kinesiology. Beyond these outcomes, it enables students to gain exposure to, build empathy for, and affect the lives of individuals from diverse populations. However, the development, management, and systematic evaluation of experiential learning vary drastically across programs. Thus, the purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the experiential-learning programs at Auburn University and Oregon State University with respect to best practices outlined by the National Society for Experiential Education. The authors provide examples of lessons learned from these two programs to help others improve the implementation and impact of undergraduate experiential learning.
Kathleen A. Moore, Michael A. Babyak, Carrie E. Wood, Melissa A. Napolitano, Parinda Khatri, W. Edward Craighead, Steve Herman, Ranga Krishnan, and James A. Blumenthal
Previous studies of younger, healthy individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between physical activity and depression. The present study addressed the relation between self-reported physical activity and symptoms of depression in 146 men and women aged 50 years and older with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients who met clinical criteria for MDD completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Minnesota Leisure-Time Activity Questionnaire (MQ). Multiple regression analysis indicated that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p = .04), after adjusting for age and gender. The implications of these findings for the treatment and prevention of depression are discussed.