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Increased Thermoregulatory Strain When Wearing an Upper Body Compression Garment During Moderate Exercise in Trained Older Adults

Iker Leoz-Abaurrea, Mikel Izquierdo, Miriam Gonzalez-Izal, and Roberto Aguado-Jiménez

The efficacy of the use of an upper body compression garment (UBCG) as an ergogenic aid to reduce thermoregulatory strain in older adults remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of UBCG on thermoregulatory, cardiorespiratory, and perceptual responses during cycling in a temperate environment (~25 °C, 66% rh) in trained older adults. Twelve cyclists aged 66 ± 2 years performed an intermittent 1-hr cycling trial at 50% of the peak power output followed by 10 min of passive recovery. Participants were provided with either commercially available UBCG or a control garment in a randomized order. UBCG increased thermoregulatory strain during exercise, as indicated by a significantly higher core temperature (38.1 ± 0.3 °C vs. 37.9 ± 0.3 °C; p = .04), body temperature (36.9 ± 0.2 °C vs. 36.7 ± 0.2 °C; p = .01), and thermal sensation (8.0 ± 0.4 vs. 7.5 ± 1.0; p = .02). These results suggest that the use of UBCG in trained older adults does not reduce the thermoregulatory strain during moderate exercise.

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Muscle CSA, Force Production, and Activation of Leg Extensors during Isometric and Dynamic Actions in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men and Women

Keijo Häkkinen, Markku Alen, Mauri Kallinen, Mikel Izquierdo, Kirsi Jokelainen, Helka Lassila, Esko Mälkiä, William J. Kraemer, and Robert U. Newton

Forty-two healthy men and women in two age groups (40 and 70 years) were examined for muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary bilateral isometric force, force-time characteristics, maximal concentric 1 RM. and power performance of the leg extensors in a sitting position, squat jump, and standing long-jump. The results suggested that the decline in maximal strength with increasing age is related to the decline in muscle CSA; however, particularly in older women, the force/CSA ratio may also be lowered. Explosive force seems to decrease with increasing age even more than maximal strength. suggesting that muscle atrophy with aging is greater in fast-twitch fibers. The voluntary activation of the agonist and antagonist muscles seems to vary depending on the type of muscle action and/or velocity and time duration of the action in both age groups but to a greater extent in older people. There appears to be an age-related increase in antagonist co activation. especially in dynamic explosive movements.

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Dance as an Intervention to Reduce Fall Risk in Older Adults: A Systematic Review With a Meta-Analysis

Eduarda Blanco-Rambo, Marcelo Bandeira-Guimarães, Alexandra F. Vieira, Caroline Pietta-Dias, Mikel Izquierdo, and Eduardo L. Cadore

The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence from randomized clinical trials on the effects of dance on fall risk in older adults through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Fall risk was assessed through timed up and go, Berg Balance Scale, or one-leg stand tests. Data are presented as mean differences for timed up and go test and standardized mean differences for Berg Balance Scale and one-leg stand tests between treatments with 95% confidence intervals, and calculations were performed using random effects models. Significance was accepted when p < .05. A significant difference was found between dance interventions and the control groups in the general analysis of fall risk assessed by timed up and go (mean differences: −1.446 s; 95% confidence interval [−1.586, −1.306]; p < .001) and Berg Balance Scale and one-leg stand tests (standardized mean differences: 0.737; 95% confidence interval [0.508, 0.966]; p < .001) in favor of the intervention group. Different dance interventions decreased the fall risk in older practitioners.

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Effectiveness of Multimodal Training on Functional Capacity in Frail Older People: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto, and Eduardo Lusa Cadore

In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effect of resistance training (RT) alone or included in a multimodal training on physical frailty outcomes, and whether different variables of RT prescription affect these outcomes. We identified 15 relevant studies searching through MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro database. Postintervention standardized mean difference scores were computed and combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. Analyses have shown positive effects of interventions on maximum strength, gait speed, and Timed Up and Go test. Further analyses have shown significant greater effect of shorter periods on maximum strength. Regarding RT prescription, percentage of one-repetition maximum showed significant effect on physical variables, whereas RT based on rate of perceived effort presented lower effect in the Timed Up and Go test. Although multimodal training is an effective intervention to increase physical capacity, caution should be taken regarding the period and the method to control RT intensity to optimize enhancements in frail older people.

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High-Speed Resistance Training in Older Women: The Role of Supervision

Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Cristian Martínez, Carlos I. de La Fuente, Eduardo L. Cadore, Mário C. Marques, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Irineu Loturco, Alexis Caniuqueo, Rodrigo Cañas, and Mikel Izquierdo

Older women participated in a 12-week high-speed resistance training program under two supervisor-to-subject ratio methods (i.e., high versus low supervision) to assess its effects on muscle strength, power, functional performance, and quality of life assessed before (T1) and after (T2) intervention. Women were divided into either the control group (CG, n = 15), high supervision group (HSG, n = 30), or low supervision group (LSG, n = 28). The training program included exercises requiring high-speed concentric muscle actions. No differences were observed among groups at T1. Between T1 and T2, the HSG showed a higher (p < .05) improvement in muscle strength (ES = 0.36–1.26), power (ES = 0.5–0.88), functional performance (ES = 0.52–0.78), and quality of life (ES = 0.44–0.82) compared with LSG and CG. High-speed resistance training under closer supervision is more effective for improving muscle strength, power, functional performance, and quality of life in older women.