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Open access

Compliance of the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines in 9- to 11-Year-Old Children From a Low-Income Town in Chile

Marcelo Toledo-Vargas, Patricio Perez-Contreras, Damian Chandia-Poblete, and Nicolas Aguilar-Farias

Background: The purpose was to determine the proportion of 9- to 11-year-old children meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines (24-HMG) in a low-income town from Chile. Methods: Physical activity, sedentary behavior (recreational screen), and sleep times were measured with both questionnaire and accelerometer in 258 children from third to sixth grade. Meeting the 24-HMG was defined as having ≥60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, ≤2 hour day of screen time, and 9 to 11 hours of sleep per night. Compliance rates were calculated as self-reported 24-HMG, with all estimations based on questionnaires, and mixed 24-HMG, in which physical activity and sleep were determined with an accelerometer and sedentary behavior was determined with a questionnaire. Results: About 198 children (10.1 [0.8] y, range 9–11 y) provided valid data for estimating self-reported 24-HMG, and 141 for mixed 24-HMG. Only 3.2% and 0.7% met the 24-HMG when using the self-reported and mixed methods, respectively. When assessing individual recommendations, 13.1% and 3.7% of the sample were physically active based on the self-report and accelerometer, respectively. About a quarter met the sedentary behavior recommendations, while around 50% met the sleep recommendations with both self-reported and mixed methods. Conclusions: An extremely low percentage of the participants met the 24-HMG. Multicomponent initiatives must be implemented to promote healthy movement behaviors in Chilean children.

Open access

Results From Chile’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Andrea Cortinez-O’Ryan, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Astrid Von Oetinger, Jaime Leppe, Macarena Valladares, Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Carolina Cobos, Nicolas Lemus, Magdalena Walbaum, and Carlos Cristi-Montero

Background:

The 2016 Chilean Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is a review of the evidence across indicators of behaviors, settings, and sources of influence associated with physical activity (PA) of Chilean children and youth.

Methods:

A Research Work Group reviewed available evidence from publications, surveys, government documents and datasets to assign a grade for 11 indicators for PA behavior based on the percentage of compliance for defined benchmarks. Grades were defined as follows: A, 81% to 100% of children accomplishing a given benchmark; B, 61% to 80%; C, 41% to 60%; D, 21% to 40%; F, 0% to 20%; INC, incomplete data available to assign score.

Results:

Grades assigned were for i) ‘Behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels’: Overall PA, F; Organized Sport Participation, D; Active Play, INC; and Active Transportation, C-; ii) ‘Factors associated with cardiometabolic risk’: Sedentary Behavior, D; Overweight and Obesity, F; Fitness, F; and iii) ‘Factors that influence PA’: Family and Peers, D; School, D; Community and Built Environment, C; Government Strategies and Investments, C.

Conclusions:

Chile faces a major challenge as most PA indicators scored low. There were clear research and information gaps that need to be filled with the implementation of consistent and regular data collection methods.

Free access

Physical Activity and Sitting Time Patterns and Sociodemographic Correlates Among 155,790 South American Adults

André O. Werneck, Raphael H.O. Araujo, Cecilia Anza-Ramírez, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Christian García-Witulski, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Se-Sergio Baldew, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Antonio García-Hermoso, Gerson Ferrari, Felicia Cañete, Ramfis Nieto-Martinez, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: To estimate the prevalence of different physical activity (PA) domains and sitting time (ST), and to analyze the association with sociodemographic indicators. Methods: Data from the most recent nationally representative survey from each of the South American countries, comprising 155,790 adults (18–64 y), were used. Data on leisure-time, transport, and occupational PA (all 3 domains as nonzero), total PA (≥150 min/wk), and ST (≥8 h/d) were assessed by specific questionnaires in each survey. Gender, age group (18–34, 35–49, and 50–64 y), and education (quintiles) were used as sociodemographic factors. Random effect meta-analysis of the association between sociodemographic factors and PA and ST were conducted. Results: The prevalence of PA guidelines compliance and elevated ST in South America was 70.3% and 14.1%, respectively. Women were less likely to achieve the recommended levels of total and domain-based PA. Participants in the highest quintile of education were more likely for elevated ST (2.80, 2.08–3.77), lower occupational PA (0.65, 0.44–0.95), but higher leisure-time PA (3.13, 2.31–4.27), in comparison with lowest quintile. Older adults were less likely to participate in total and leisure-time PA. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the urge to tackle the inequalities in PA practice in South America, especially gender and education inequalities, for leisure-time PA.

Full access

2018 Chilean Physical Activity Report Card for Children and Adolescents: Full Report and International Comparisons

Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Sebastian Miranda-Marquez, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Damian Chandia-Poblete, Camila Mella-Garcia, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Fernando Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Pedro Delgado-Floody, Astrid Von Oetinger, Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Sebastian Peña, Cristobal Cuadrado, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Celis-Morales, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso, and Andrea Cortínez-O’Ryan

Background: The study summarizes the findings of the 2018 Chilean Report Card (RC) on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Adolescents and compares the results with the first Chilean RC and with other countries from the Global Matrix 3.0. Methods: A Research Work Group using a standardized methodology from the Global Matrix 3.0 awarded grades for 13 PA-related indicators based on the percentage of compliance for defined benchmarks. Different public data sets, government reports, and papers informed the indicators. Results: The grades assigned were for (1) “behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels”: overall PA, D−; organized sport participation, D−; active play, INC; and active transportation, F; (2) “factors associated with cardiometabolic risk”: sedentary behavior, C−; overweight and obesity, F; fitness, D; sleep, INC; and (3) “factors that influence PA”: family and peers, F; school, D; inclusion, INC; community and built environment, B; government strategies and investments, B−. Conclusions: Chile’s grades remained low compared with the first RC. On the positive side, Chile is advancing in environmental and policy aspects. Our findings indicate that the implementation of new strategies should be developed through collaboration between different sectors to maximize effective investments for increasing PA and decreasing sedentary time among children and adolescents in Chile.

Open access

Global Matrix 4.0 Physical Activity Report Card Grades for Children and Adolescents: Results and Analyses From 57 Countries

Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Iryna Demchenko, Myranda Hawthorne, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, José Carmelo Adsuar Sala, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Susana Aznar, Peter Bakalár, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Mikel Bringas, Jonathan Y. Cagas, Angela Carlin, Chen-Kang Chang, Bozhi Chen, Lars Breum Christiansen, Candice Jo-Anne Christie, Gabriela Fernanda De Roia, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Visnja Djordjic, Arunas Emeljanovas, Liri Findling Endy, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Kylie D. Hesketh, Wendy Yajun Huang, Omphile Hubona, Justin Y. Jeon, Danijel Jurakić, Jaak Jürimäe, Tarun Reddy Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Yeon-Soo Kim, Estelle Victoria Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Sharon Levi, Pablo Lobo, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, José Francisco López-Gil, Juan López-Taylor, Evelin Mäestu, Agus Mahendra, Daga Makaza, Marla Frances T. Mallari, Taru Manyanga, Bojan Masanovic, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider, Laura Muñoz Bermejo, Marie H. Murphy, Rowena Naidoo, Phuong Nguyen, Susan Paudel, Željko Pedišić, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, John J. Reilly, Anne Kerstin Reimers, Amie B. Richards, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, Olga L. Sarmiento, Vedrana Sember, Mohd Razif Shahril, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tuija H. Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, Riki Tesler, David Thivel, Dawn Mahube Tladi, Lenka Tlučáková, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Alun Williams, Stephen Heung Sang Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura, and Mark S. Tremblay

Background: The Global Matrix 4.0 on physical activity (PA) for children and adolescents was developed to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the global variation in children’s and adolescents’ (5–17 y) PA, related measures, and key sources of influence. The objectives of this article were (1) to summarize the findings from the Global Matrix 4.0 Report Cards, (2) to compare indicators across countries, and (3) to explore trends related to the Human Development Index and geo-cultural regions. Methods: A total of 57 Report Card teams followed a harmonized process to grade the 10 common PA indicators. An online survey was conducted to collect Report Card Leaders’ top 3 priorities for each PA indicator and their opinions on how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted child and adolescent PA indicators in their country. Results: Overall Physical Activity was the indicator with the lowest global average grade (D), while School and Community and Environment were the indicators with the highest global average grade (C+). An overview of the global situation in terms of surveillance and prevalence is provided for all 10 common PA indicators, followed by priorities and examples to support the development of strategies and policies internationally. Conclusions: The Global Matrix 4.0 represents the largest compilation of children’s and adolescents’ PA indicators to date. While variation in data sources informing the grades across countries was observed, this initiative highlighted low PA levels in children and adolescents globally. Measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, local/international conflicts, climate change, and economic change threaten to worsen this situation.