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Travis E. Dorsch and Nicole D. Bolter

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Nicole D. Bolter, Lindsay Kipp, and Tyler Johnson

Background: Promoting good sportsmanship is a common goal of school physical education and many youth sport organizations. Teachers and coaches play a key role in accomplishing this goal. Thus, it is important to gather teachers’ and coaches’ reports of how they teach sportsmanship as well as youths’ perceptions of those behaviors to understand if and how this goal is being fulfilled. Purpose: To clarify the degree of alignment between leader and youth perceptions of sportsmanship by comparing: (a) physical education teachers’ self-reported sportsmanship teaching behaviors with their students’ perceptions of their teacher’s behavior and (b) youth sport coaches’ self-reported sportsmanship coaching behaviors with their athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s behaviors. Method: The physical education sample included 27 teachers and 837 boys and girls aged 11–15 years. The sport sample included 32 coaches and 246 boys and girls aged 10–15 years. Youth completed a survey about their leader’s behaviors related to sportsmanship. Leaders completed a parallel survey about their own behaviors. Results: Teachers rated themselves as significantly more often reinforcing and modeling good sportsmanship and punishing poor sportsmanship than students reported. Coaches rated themselves as significantly more often reinforcing and teaching good sportsmanship than perceived by their athletes. Conclusions: Misalignment between leaders’ and youths’ perceptions of several sportsmanship behaviors speaks to the importance of leaders engaging in strategies to accurately assess their own behaviors.

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Laura J. Petranek, Nicole D. Bolter, and Ken Bell

Purpose: External attentional focused instructions and feedback have shown to enhance motor performance among adults, adolescents, and older children. This study examined type and frequency of instructions and feedback among younger children performing an overhand throw. Method: First graders (N = 65) were provided external or internal focused instructions at high- or low-frequency rates resulting in four experimental groups (External-High, External-Low, Internal-High, and Internal-Low). Results: Internal focused groups performed significantly better than external focused groups during retention–transfer, and children who received feedback that is more frequent performed better. External-Low performed better than External-High at the end of acquisition and retention–transfer, whereas Internal-High performed better than Internal-Low throughout acquisition. Conclusion: Data support previous research indicating children need more feedback when learning a motor skill but did not support prior studies regarding attentional focus. More work is needed to understand how and why young children respond differently to attentional focused instructions and feedback.

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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee, and James R. Bagley

Bacteria residing in the human gastrointestinal tract has a symbiotic relationship with its host. Animal models have demonstrated a relationship between exercise and gut microbiota composition. This was the first study to explore the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max) and relative gut microbiota composition (Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio [F/B]) in healthy young adults in a free-living environment. Twenty males and 17 females (25.7 ± 2.2 years), who did not take antibiotics in the last 6 months, volunteered for this study. VO2max was measured using a symptom-limited graded treadmill test. Relative microbiota composition was determined by analyzing DNA extracted from stool samples using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction that specifically measured the quantity of a target gene (16S rRNA) found in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Relationships between F/B and potentially related dietary, anthropometric, and fitness variables were assessed using correlation analyses with an appropriate Bonferroni adjustment (p < .004). The average F/B ratio in all participants was 0.94 ± 0.03. The F/B ratio was significantly correlated to VO2max (r = .48, p < .003), but no other fitness, nutritional intake, or anthropometric variables (p > .004). VO2max explained ∼22% of the variance of an individual’s relative gut bacteria as determined by the F/B ratio. These data support animal findings, demonstrating a relationship between relative human gut microbiota composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy young adults. Gastrointestinal bacteria is integral in regulating a myriad of physiological processes, and greater insight regarding ramifications of exercise and nutrition on gut microbial composition may help guide therapies to promote human health.