The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time-of-day-specific training on the diurnal variations of short-term performances in boys. Twenty-four boys were randomized into a morning-training-group (07:00–08:00h; MTG), an evening training-group (17:00–18:00h; ETG) and a control-group (CG). They performed four tests of strength and power (unilateral isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensor muscles, Squat-Jump, Counter-Movement-Jump and Wingate tests) at 07:00 and 17:00h just before (T0) and after 6 weeks of resistance training (T1). In T0, the results revealed that short-term performances improved and oral temperature increased significantly from morning to afternoon (amplitudes between 2.36 and 17.5% for both oral temperature and performances) for all subjects. In T1, the diurnal variations of performances were blunted in the MTG and persisted in the ETG and CG. Moreover, the training program increase muscle strength and power especially after training in the morning hours and the magnitude of gains was greater at the time-of-day-specific training than at other times. In conclusion, these results suggest that time-of-day-specific training increases the child’s anaerobic performances specifically at this time-of-day. Moreover, the improvement of these performances was greater after morning than evening training.
Hichem Souissi, Hamdi Chtourou, Anis Chaouachi, Mohamed Dogui, Karim Chamari, Nizar Souissi, and Mohamed Amri
Hichem Souissi, Anis Chaouachi, Karim Chamari, Mohamed Dogui, Mohamed Amri, and Nizar Souissi
The purpose of this study was to examine the time-of-day effects on short-term performances in boys. In a balanced and randomized study design, 20 boys performed four anaerobic tests of strength and power (grip strength, Squat-Jump, Five-jump and cycle Wingate tests) at 08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 hr on separate days. The results showed a time-of-day effect on oral temperature. Analysis of variance revealed a significant time-of-day effect for short-term performances for strength, cycle, and jump tests. The post hoc analysis revealed that performances improved significantly from morning to afternoon but no significant differences were noticed between 14:00 and 18:00 hr. The differences between the morning and the afternoon (the highest value measured either at 14:00 or at 18:00 hr) reached 5.9% for grip strength, 3.5% for the squat jump test, 5% for the five jump test, and 5.5% for Ppeak and 6% for Pmean during the Wingate test. A significant positive correlation was found between temperature and short-term performances. In conclusion, a time-of-day effect in the child’s maximal short-term exercise performances exists in relation with core temperature. Such variations would have pronounced effects when expressed in training programs and competitions.