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Debate of Ideas and Understanding With Regard to Tactical Learning in Team Sports

Jean-Francis Gréhaigne and Paul Godbout

Purpose: The researchers discuss the debate of ideas (DoI) and student understanding conducted on questioning and student answers or discussions in game-based approaches and on DoI as used in the tactical-decision learning model. Literature Review: Literature regarding types of questions and expected student answers and questioning for learning in game-based approaches is reviewed. In addition, a brief overview of the context in which DoI was originally developed is presented. Findings and Discussion: Studies that used DoI are discussed with regard to the management of game play and observation, DoI content and the dynamics of student discussions, and impact on game play statistics and on students’ tactical knowledge. Challenges for teachers and students are discussed, as a student-centered approach encourages changes in traditional teacher and student roles. Finally, the importance of understanding the internal logic of team sports for solving tactical problems and learning is discussed.

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Teachers’ Assessment Practices Viewed through the Instruments Used in Physical Education Classes

Pauline Desrosiers, Yvette Genet-Volet, and Paul Godbout

The purpose of this study was to illustrate how experienced teachers assess students’ learning. Thirteen middle and high school physical education teachers (Grades 7 to 11) were observed during one or two teaching units over a total of 183 lessons. The 62 assessment instruments used by the teachers during those 183 lessons were analyzed from several perspectives: the integration of assessment to the teaching-learning process, the aspects assessed, and the characteristics of the instruments. For integration of assessment, 71% of the instruments were used for preassessment or formative assessment purposes. Regarding aspects assessed, the instruments were used 77% of the time to assess both technical and tactical skills. With respect to their characteristics, 70% of the assessment instruments consisted of a one-sided sheet, with a majority designed to assess one student. In most cases the collection of information was based either on a rating scale, checklist, or a combination of both.

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Performance Assessment in Team Sports

Jean-Francis Gréhaigne, Paul Godbout, and Daniel Bouthier

The purpose of this paper is to discuss a procedure to assess individual performance in team sports in contexts of preassessment and formative assessment. An authentic assessment procedure based on the observation of players’ actions during matches yielded two performance indices: the efficiency index and the volume of play. A general nomogram is suggested for use with various team sports in order to produce a single performance score combining both indices. Content validity, concurrent validity (.74), and ecological validity are discussed. The interobserver reliability (>.90) of the data and the stability of performance (.88) are also examined. Some conditions are discussed for integrating the assessment procedure to the teaching-learning process with an active participation of the students in the collection and interpretation of the data. The proposed procedure is strictly game oriented and yields information reflecting both motor and tactical skills.

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The Foundations of Tactics and Strategy in Team Sports

Jean-Francis Gréhaigne, Paul Godbout, and Daniel Bouthier

The debate regarding the teaching of sport and games appears to be more complex than a matter of technical versus tactical approaches. The authors identify facets of the debate. One of these facets concerns the undifferentiated use of the terms tactics and strategy. The authors argue that these two concepts need to be clarified if decision-making and critical-thinking are to be encouraged on the part of the students. A framework is put forward for the analysis of the functioning of team sports. The framework includes: (a) an overview of the internal logic of team sports based on two essential features, the rapport of strength and the competency network; (b) an operational definition of strategy and tactics as they relate to the internal logic of team sports; and (c) nine principles underlying tactics and strategy and presented as potential guides for teachers and students in the teaching-learning of team sports and games.

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The Try-Out of a Team Sport Performance Assessment Procedure in Elementary and Junior High School Physical Education Classes

Jean-François Richard, Paul Godbout, Marielle Tousignant, and Jean-Francis Gréhaigne

The purpose of this study is to describe the results of a try-out of Gréhaigne, Godbout, and Bouthier’s (1997) team sport performance assessment procedure in elementary and junior high school physical education classes and to expose issues related to its potential implementation. Six elementary and junior high school teachers were asked to use this assessment procedure with their Grade 5 to 8 class-groups for a 6-week period in order to gather data for the establishment of performance norms. As it was developed for peer assessment purposes, the teachers instructed their students in observing and coding. Teachers and their students then proceeded to collect team sport performance data. Following this process, interviews were conducted in order to gather the teachers’ perceptions and opinions regarding the potential integration of this assessment procedure. From the collected data, topics focusing on the possible applications in a team sport teaching-learning context are presented and discussed.