Teachers’ self-efficacy is a critical predictor for successful inclusive physical education. However, little is known about preservice physical educators’ self-efficacy toward teaching students with autism spectrum disorders in China. A sound instrument is necessary to measure their self-efficacy level. This validation study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Physical Educators’ Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students with Disabilities—Autism. A multisection survey form was administered to preservice physical educators in Mainland China (n = 205) and Hong Kong (n = 227). The results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the one-factor model of the scale in the total sample and each of the two samples. Invariance tests across the two samples supported configural and metric invariance but not scalar invariance. The scale scores showed good internal reliability and were correlated with theoretically relevant constructs (i.e., burnout and life satisfaction) in the total sample and subsamples. These findings generally support the utility of the scale for use among Chinese preservice physical educators.
Psychometric Properties of the Physical Educators’ Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students With Disabilities—Autism Among Chinese Preservice Physical Education Teachers
Chunxiao Li, Lijuan Wang, Martin E. Block, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Yandan Wu
Preservice Teachers’ Mindfulness and Attitudes Toward Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction
Chunxiao Li, Ngai Kiu Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Chung Wah Yu
Teachers’ attitudes toward students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are vital predictors of successful inclusive education. Guided by the basic psychological needs theory, this cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the relationships among mindfulness, basic psychological needs satisfaction (basic psychological needs theory-based construct), and attitudes toward including students with ASD among preservice physical education (PE) teachers. A multisection survey form was administered to 211 preservice PE teachers. Path analysis indicated that mindfulness and basic psychological needs satisfaction positively predicted attitudes toward the inclusion of students with ASD. In addition, mindfulness had an indirect effect on attitudes through basic psychological needs satisfaction. The findings provide a preliminary direction for the development of a mindfulness-based intervention program for enhancing preservice PE teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with ASD. The findings also suggest that the basic psychological needs theory is a useful framework for understanding the relationship between mindfulness and attitudes. Future longitudinal or intervention studies are needed to examine whether the findings can be replicated.
Results and SWOT Analysis of the 2022 Hong Kong Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Special Educational Needs
Cindy H.P. Sit, Wendy Y.J. Huang, Stephen H.S. Wong, Martin C.S. Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Venus M.H. Li
Background: Following the 2019 Hong Kong Para Report Card, the 2022 Hong Kong Para Report Card aimed to provide an updated and evidence-based assessment for nine indicators related to physical activity in children and adolescents with special educational needs and to assess the results using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. Methods: Using a systematic process, the best available data on nine indicators were searched from the past 10 years and were assessed by a research work group. Letter grades were assigned and considered by stakeholders and auditors. Results: Four indicators were assigned a letter grade (overall physical activity: F [mixed device-measured and self-reported data]; sedentary behaviors: D [device-measured data]; active transportation: D−; government strategies & investment: C+). SWOT analysis highlighted opportunities for facilitating children and adolescents with special educational needs to achieve health recommendations. Conclusion: There were deteriorating trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Effective, multilevel, and cross-sector interventions are recommended to promote active behavior in children and adolescents with special educational needs.