In equipment-heavy sports, there is a growing need to evaluate players in the condition in which they participate. However, the psychometric properties of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) while wearing skates remains unknown. Seventy-four adolescent male hockey players completed the BESS with and without skates. A subset was reevaluated at the conclusion of the season. The BESS while wearing skates resulted in a mean of 15 more total errors than the traditional administration (t73 = 14.94, p < .001; ES = 1.95) and demonstrated low test-retest reliability. The BESS should be administered in the traditional manner (without skates).
Balance Error Scoring System Reliability and Validity When Performed With Ice Skates
Jason P. Mihalik, Elizabeth F. Teel, Robert C. Lynall, and Erin B. Wasserman
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Treat Acute Sport-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Case Series
Patricia R. Roby, Robert C. Lynall, Michael J. Cools, Stephen W. Marshall, Janna C. Fonseca, James R. Stevens, and Jason P. Mihalik
We report on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy used to improve postinjury outcomes in eight acutely concussed high school student-athletes (5 males, 3 females, mean age = 16.0 ± 1.2 years). Patients were randomly assigned into one of three intervention groups: (a) HBO2 therapy; (b) hyperbaric therapy with compressed medical-grade air (HBA); or (c) normobaric 100% O2 therapy. All patients completed five 1-hr treatments within the first 10 days following his or her concussion. Main outcome measures included mental status examination, symptom burden, and the number of days from injury until the physician permitted the student-athlete to return to activity. Patients receiving HBO2 treatment experienced the greatest absolute symptom reduction over the five treatment sessions. No meaningful differences were found in mental status examination. All participants returned to activity in a similar timeframe. HBO2 therapy may be an effective option for the acute treatment of postconcussion symptoms, particularly in young athletes presenting with a high symptom burden.