Background: Children and adolescents with disabilities often report low levels of physical activity (PA). Estimating the magnitude of PA disparities has been previously challenged by underreporting and variability in subsampling of disability. Using the National Survey of Children’s Health, this study estimated the population-level PA disparities experienced and the association between disability status and PA engagement. Methods: Weighted prevalence of PA engagement (National Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (2nd edition) and sports participation) was compared across disability groups for children (n = 20,867, 6–11 y) and adolescents (n = 28,651, 12–17 y) and found to be 12%. Age-stratified multivariable logistic regressions estimated the likelihood of PA engagement as a function of disability status and type, after adjusting for child and household factors. Results: Children, but not adolescents, with disabilities had significantly lower odds of being sufficiently active compared with peers without disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.60–0.94). Across age groups, the lowest prevalence rates were observed among those experiencing function and mobility disabilities. Children and adolescents were significantly less likely to participate in sports compared with peers. Conclusion: Children with function and mobility disabilities were identified as priority subpopulations least likely to be sufficiently active. The disparity in sports participation highlights a critical intervention point for increasing PA among children with disabilities.
Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield, and Samuel W. Logan
Samuel W. Logan, E. Kipling Webster, Nancy Getchell, Karin A. Pfeiffer, and Leah E. Robinson
The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence of the relationship between fundamental motor skills (FMS) competence and physical activity by qualitatively describing results from 13 studies that met rigorous inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: (a) published in a peer-review journal, (b) participants were between the ages of 3–18, (c) participants were typically developing, (d) FMS was measured by a process-oriented assessment, (e) assessed physical activity, (f) related FMS and physical activity through statistical procedures, and (g) printed in English. Databases were searched for relevant articles using key terms related to FMS and physical activity. Evidence suggested low to moderate relationships between FMS competence and physical activity in early childhood (r = .16 to .48; R 2 = 3–23%, 4 studies), low to high relationships in middle to late childhood (r = .24 to .55; R 2 = 6–30%, 7 studies), and low to moderate relationships in adolescence (r = .14 to .35; R 2 = 2–12.3%, 2 studies). Across ages, object control skills and locomotor skills were more strongly related to physical activity for boys and girls, respectively. Future research should emphasize experimental and longitudinal research designs to provide further understanding of the relationship between FMS competence and physical activity.
Nadia C. Valentini, Nancy Getchell, Samuel W. Logan, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden, Mary E. Rudisill, and Leah E. Robinson
We compared children with, at-risk for, or without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) through (a) correlations, (b) gender and age comparisons, (c) cross tab analyses, and (d) factor analyses.
Children (N = 424; age range: 4–10 years) from southern Brazil completed the TGMD-2 and MABC and placed into groups (DCD: ≤ 5th%, n = 58; at-risk: > 5th to ≤ 15th%, n = 133; typically developing (TD) >16th%, n = 233).
The strongest correlation was between total performance on the TGMD-2 and MABC (r = .37). No gender differences were found for performance on the MABC while boys performed better than girls on the TGMD-2. Cross tab analyses indicated a high level of agreement for children who performed in the lowest percentiles on each assessment. Factor analyses suggested that, for both the TD and at-risk groups, three factors loaded on the motor assessments. In contrast, the DCD group loaded on a sport skill, general skill, and a manipulative skill factor, accounting for 42.3% of the variance.
Evidence suggests that children who perform very poorly on one assessment are likely to perform poorly on the other. Children with DCD may have sports-related skill deficiencies.
Nadia C. Valentini, Samuel W. Logan, Barbara C. Spessato, Mariele Santayana de Souza, Keila G. Pereira, and Mary E. Rudisill
The objectives of this study were to examine sex and age differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS) and to describe the prevalence of low motor proficiency and mastery competence. The Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition was used to assess 2,377 children (3–10 years old) from eight states and 75 schools in Brazil. The results showed that (a) boys are more proficient than girls in the majority of FMS, (b) FMS development begins to plateau at age 7, (c) low motor proficiency is present at age 10 for several FMS, and (d) mastery competence was achieved by only a small number of children. These findings suggest that increased opportunities to engage in physical activity that promotes FMS competence are needed.
Samuel W. Logan, Christina M. Hospodar, Kathleen R. Bogart, Michele A. Catena, Heather A. Feldner, Jenna Fitzgerald, Sarah Schaffer, Bethany Sloane, Benjamin Phelps, Joshua Phelps, and William D. Smart
Background: Go Baby Go is a community program that provides modified ride-on cars to young children with disabilities. Aims: (1) To describe the real world modified ride-on car usage of young children with disabilities; (2) To compare subjectively reported modified ride-on car usage recorded by parents with objectively reported usage based on electronic tracking data. Methods: 14 young children (1–3 years old) with disabilities used a modified ride-on car for three months. Results: On average, parent-reported activity log data indicated that children used the modified ride-on car for 17.8 minutes per session (SD = 9.9) and 195.1 total minutes (SD = 234.8) over three months. Objective tracking data indicated 16.5 minutes per session (SD = 8.6) and 171.4 total minutes (SD = 206.1) over three months. No significant difference of modified ride-on car usage was found between parent-reported activity log data and objective tracking; yet, the mean absolute difference between tracking methods was 96 minutes (SD = 8.6) and suggests over- or under-reporting of families. Children used the modified ride-on car more in the first half compared to the second half of the three-month period (p < .05). Conclusions: This study may inform future research studies and local chapters of the Go Baby Go community program.