The Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) is a whole-school model for increasing opportunities throughout the school day for access to physical activity (PA). Opportunities for PA during the school day are an important part of the field of kinesiology and critical to individuals’ developing patterns of lifetime PA. Guided by Guskey’s theory of teacher change, this scoping literature review summarizes findings from 29 studies that collected data concerning the perceptions of stakeholders in a CSPAP. Teachers’ lifelong learning process is the focus, including K-12 classroom and physical education teachers and students, as well as current preservice classroom and physical education teacher education students and education faculty at teacher-preparation institutions. Positive perceptions of CSPAP programs were reported by all stakeholder groups. Although studies often include barriers to implementation, the stakeholders generally shared strategies to overcoming these and focused on benefits to the school setting that the researchers explained in their discussions.
Shannon C. Mulhearn, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, and Collin Webster
Hyeonho Yu, Pamela H. Kulinna, and Shannon C. Mulhearn
Background: Environmental provisions can boost students’ discretionary participation in physical activity (PA) during lunchtime at school. This study investigated the effectiveness of providing PA equipment as an environmental intervention on middle school students’ PA levels and stakeholders’ perceptions of the effectiveness of equipment provisions during school lunch recess. Methods: A baseline–intervention research design was used in this study with a first baseline phase followed by an intervention phase (ie, equipment provision phase). A total of 514 students at 2 middle schools (school 1 and school 2) in a rural area of the western United States were observed directly using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth instrument. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders. Paired-sample t tests and visual analysis were conducted to explore differences in PA levels by gender, and common comparison (with trustworthiness measures) was used with the interview data. Results: The overall percentage of moderate to vigorous PA levels was increased in both schools (ranging from 8.0% to 24.0%). In school 2, there was a significant difference in seventh- and eighth-grade students’ moderate to vigorous PA levels from the baseline. Three major themes were identified: (1) unmotivated, (2) unequipped, and (3) unquestionable changes (with students becoming more active). Conclusions: Environmental supports (access, equipment, and supervision) significantly and positively influenced middle school students’ lunchtime PA levels.