The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes’ (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8–10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices.
Dietary Intake at Competition in Elite Olympic Combat Sports
Stefan Pettersson and Christina M. Berg
Hydration Status in Elite Wrestlers, Judokas, Boxers, and Taekwondo Athletes on Competition Day
Stefan Pettersson and Christina M. Berg
Weight category athletes are known for practicing rapid weight loss before competition weigh-in. After weigh-in, athletes strive to restore euhydration and body mass through food and fluid intake. The aim of the current study was to assess prevalence of hypohydration at competition time among elite athletes’ in four different combat sports, and how water intake and timing of official weigh-in were related to hydration status. Participants were 31 taekwondo practitioners and wrestlers who performed evening weigh-in (EWI) the night before competition day and had thus time for rehydration, and 32 boxers and judokas conducting competition day morning weigh-in (MWI). In total, 32% were female. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured by refractometry on the competition day’s first morning urine sample. Hypohydration was defined as USG ≥1.020 and serious hypohydration as USG > 1.030. Water intake was measured by means of dietary records. The prevalence of hypohydration was 89% in the morning of competition day. Serious hypohydration was also prevalent. This was found in over 50% of MWI athletes and in 42% of the EWI group. A higher water intake, from both fluids and solid foods, in the evening before competition day was not associated with a more favorable hydration status the following morning. In conclusion, neither weigh-in close to competition nor evening weigh-in with more time for rehydration seems to prevent hypohydration before competition.
Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Postexercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake
Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin, and Klavs Madsen
Purpose: This study investigated how postexercise intake of placebo (PLA), protein (PRO), or carbohydrate (CHO) affected fat oxidation (FO) and metabolic parameters during recovery and subsequent exercise. Methods: In a cross-over design, 12 moderately trained women (VO2max 45 ± 6 ml·min−1·kg−1) performed three days of testing. A 23-min control (CON) incremental FO bike test (30–80% VO2max) was followed by 60 min exercise at 75% VO2max. Immediately postexercise, subjects ingested PLA, 20 g PRO, or 40 g CHO followed by a second FO bike test 2 h later. Results: Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the intensity at which MFO occurs (Fatmax) increased at the second FO test compared to the first following all three postexercise drinks (MFO for CON = 0.28 ± 0.08, PLA = 0.57 ± 0.13, PRO = 0.52 ± 0.08, CHO = 0.44 ± 0.12 g fat·min−1; Fatmax for CON = 41 ± 7, PLA = 54 ± 4, PRO = 55 ± 6, CHO = 50 ± 8 %VO2max, p < 0.01 for all values compared to CON). Resting FO, MFO, and Fatmax were not significantly different between PLA and PRO, but lower for CHO. PRO and CHO increased insulin levels at 1 h postexercise, though both glucose and insulin were equal with PLA at 2 h postexercise. Increased postexercise ketone levels only occurred with PLA. Conclusion: Protein supplementation immediately postexercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 h later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the postexercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate intake dampened the increase in fat oxidation during the second test, though a significant increase was still observed compared to the first test.