Purpose: Using 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey data, the authors conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis to examine the associations of movement behaviors (ie, physical activity [PA] and screen-based sedentary behaviors) and fundamental motor skills (FMS) with fitness (ie, muscular fitness) and fatness (ie, body mass index and waist circumference) in 3- to 5-year-old children. The effect of ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic) on these associations was also examined. Methods: A total of 352 children (173 girls; mean age = 4.02 y) from the 2012 NHANES data set were included. Parents reported their child’s PA and screen-based sedentary behaviors. FMS (ie, locomotor and object control) were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition. Other variables used were body mass index, waist circumference, and plank. Results: Hispanic children demonstrated lower levels of PA than non-Hispanic children (P < .05). Children’s FMS emerged as significant predictors of muscular fitness and waist circumference, but not for body mass index in the Hispanic group. In the non-Hispanic group, FMS (ie, object control skills) and PA accounted for significant variances of muscular fitness and waist circumference, respectively. Conclusion: The associations of movement behaviors and FMS with fitness and fatness are different between Hispanic and non-Hispanic young children. Changes in policy or early childhood curriculum may be tailed to promote FMS for an impact on fitness and fatness in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic children.
Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola, and Jing Wang
Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Bailey Sommerfeld, and Tao Zhang
Building on recent research examining athlete burnout trajectories, this study implemented the developmental model of sport participation to compare emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation between age groups (specializing [aged 13–15 years] vs. investment [aged 16–18 years]) and gender (boys vs. girls) among U.S. high school athletes. Participants were 367 high school athletes (M = 15.53; 212 males; 186 specializing) across various individual and team sports who completed a survey assessing their demographic information, sport backgrounds, and burnout perceptions. A 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for training hours, showed greater emotional and physical exhaustion and sport devaluation in the investment than the specializing group, but no developmental differences in reduced sense of accomplishment. Contrary to our hypothesis, no gender or interaction effects were found. Findings inform interventions and future research that address the role of developmental stages and gender in athlete burnout.
Yuxin Zhu, Fenghua Sun, Gary C.C. Chow, Sisi Tao, Simon B. Cooper, Borui Zhang, and Thomson W.L. Wong
Purpose: This study investigated the associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and executive function in preadolescents. Methods: One hundred and twenty preadolescents were recruited from 2 Hong Kong primary schools. PA and sedentary behavior were recorded for 7 consecutive days by accelerometer. Executive function performance, including inhibition (Stroop task and Flanker task) and working memory (Sternberg paradigm task), were measured. Body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness (multistage fitness test) were tested. Latent profile analysis explored the profiles of PA and sedentary behavior in preadolescents. Results: Three distinct profiles were identified: low activity, average activity, and high activity. Participants in low activity performed worse in the accuracy of Stroop task (vs average activity, P = .03; vs high activity, P < .01), Flanker task (vs average activity, P = .02; vs high activity, P < .001), and Sternberg paradigm task (vs average activity, P < .01; vs high activity, P < .01). No significant difference was observed between participants with average and high activities. No significant association was observed for profiles on body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Supplementing the consensus of the literature that moderate to vigorous PA benefits cognition, the authors conclude that light PA may also enhance preadolescents’ executive functioning.
Xingyun Zhu, Fang Zhang, Jing Chen, Yingxi Zhao, Tianhao Ba, Chu Lin, Yingli Lu, Tao Yu, Xiaoling Cai, Li Zhang, and Linong Ji
Few studies have investigated the dose–response relationship between exercise and weight control. This study aimed to assess the effects of different types of supervised exercise training on weight control and other metabolic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and explore the dose–response relationship between exercise volume/duration and these outcomes. PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies between January 1980 and June 2019. Randomized control trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with supervised exercise training versus control treatment were included. The primary outcome was changes in body weight (kg). The secondary outcomes included changes in waist circumference (cm) and total body fat percentage (%). Forty-two randomized control trials, including 3,625 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. Overall, exercise treatment was associated with significant reduction in body weight (weighted mean differences, −1.10 kg; 95% CI [−1.58, −0.62], p < .01), waist circumference (weighted mean differences, −2.51 cm; 95% CI [−3.25, −1.77], p < .01), and total body fat (weighted mean differences, −1.16%; 95% CI [−1.58%, −0.75%], p < .01). The percentage of total body fat was reduced by all types of exercise, with a significant difference between aerobic exercise and resistance exercise (p = .02) and a significant difference between combined exercise and resistance exercise (p < .01). A higher volume of aerobic exercise and a higher volume of resistance exercise were superior in reducing body weight. In conclusion, supervised exercise training improved metabolic outcomes in general, while different types and volume of exercises have their own merits.
Ming Ding, Hui Ouyang, Caiyun Zhang, Lijun Jiang, Runsen Zhuang, Xiaomei Dong, Xiongfei Chen, Hongmei Yang, and Qian Tao
Leisure activities, particularly physically and cognitively stimulating leisure activities, mitigate cognitive decline. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between mahjong playing, leisure physical activity, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Older adults with and without MCI were recruited (n = 489, healthy group; and n = 187, MCI group). The regression results showed that years of mahjong playing (odds ratio = 0.595, 95% confidence interval [0.376, 0.961], p = .032) and physical activity (odds ratio = 0.572, 95% confidence interval [0.381, 0.849], p = .012) were associated with reduced odds of having MCI after adjusting for a series of covariates. Leisure physical activity and mahjong playing interacted with each other and produced combined effects on the odds of having MCI. Combined cognitive and physical interventions may produce larger benefits on cognition than either intervention alone.