Thomas E. Deeter
Thomas E. Deeter
The present study evaluated a cognitive expectancy-value model of achievement behavior in a physical activity setting. Based on Eccles et al.'s (1983) framework, expectancy variables and task value variables were hypothesized to predict indices of achievement behavior. Two samples of male and female university students (N1 =315; N2 = 146) enrolled in a required physical education skills program served as subjects. Two-sample structural equation modeling procedures showed no significant differences in the fit of the hypothesized model across samples, providing initial support for cross-validation. The overall fit of the model to the data was much better for Sample 2 than for Sample 1. Also, the expectancy components had a greater impact than the task value components on performance indices, a prediction consistent with Eccles et al.'s (1983) position. Future studies are needed to evaluate this model in a more free-choice situation involving nonrequired activities.
Robert J. Brustad, Thomas E. Deeter, and Charles J. Hardy
Diane L. Gill, David A. Dzewaltowski, and Thomas E. Deeter
The validity of the recently developed Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ), a multidimensional measure of sport achievement orientation, was investigated with both high school and university students. Specifically, we examined the correlations of SOQ scores with other measures of competitiveness and general achievement orientation and we compared the relative abilities of SOQ scores and other achievement measures to discriminate participants and nonpar-ticipants in competitive sports, noncompetitive sports, and nonsport activities. The findings obtained with both high school and university students provided convergent and divergent evidence for the validity of the SOQ. SOQ scores were highly correlated with other competitiveness measures, moderately correlated with general achievement measures, and uncorrelated with competitive anxiety and social desirability. Competitiveness scores were the strongest discriminators between competitive sport participants and nonpar-ticipants, but SOQ scores were weaker discriminators for noncompetitive achievement choices. The findings confirm the value of a multidimensional, sport-specific achievement measure and provide good evidence for the validity of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire.