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Jean M. Williams, Laura J. Kenow, Gerald J. Jerome, Tracie Rogers, Tessa A. Sartain, and Greg Darland

Little research exists to identify optimal coaching behaviors and factors that influence the effectiveness of particular behaviors. The present study tested 484 athletes in order to determine sub-scales on the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). The CBQ measures athletes’ perceptions of coaching behaviors and evaluates their effectiveness in helping athletes play better and maintain optimal mental states and focus. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the two-factor model (negative activation, supportiveness/emotional composure) derived from an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Correlational analyses indicated that athletes with higher anxiety and lower self-confidence and compatibility with the coach were more likely to negatively evaluate coaching behaviors. The results support and expand on Smoll and Smith’s (1989) model of leadership behaviors in sport.