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  • Author: Virgílio Viana Ramires x
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Virgílio Viana Ramires, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, and Helen Gonçalves

Background:

Physical activity (PA) practice has been inversely associated to body fat (BF) and recommended as a way to reduce and prevent obesity. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association of PA and BF in adolescence.

Methods:

The review includes 18 longitudinal studies found in the PubMed database, comprising papers published from January 1990 to July 2014. Studies assessing BF only through body mass index were excluded.

Results:

Among the outcomes analyzed, waist circumference, skinfolds, and absolute and relative fat mass measurement were identified. Questionnaires were the more predominant way to evaluate PA. Most studies showed that PA promotes a protective effect against a higher BF gain.

Conclusion:

It was concluded that PA has a protective effect against BF with differences between the genders and according to the BF marker or measurement assessed; higher intensity PA leads to a greater effect against BF gain in both genders; and the maintenance or increase of PA level on BF observed through analysis of change in PA level yielded more consistent findings in the relation between PA and BF.

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Renata Moraes Bielemann, Virgílio Viana Ramires, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Pedro Curi Hallal, and Bernardo Lessa Horta

Background:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity and triglyceride and HDLc levels in young male adults.

Methods:

We used information about males belonging 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Physical activity in 4 domains (leisure time, transportation, household, and occupation) was assessed by self-report in participants of the cohort at ages of 18 and 23 years. Subjects were active if reached the recommendation of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. At 23 years of age, blood sample was collected, and triglycerides and HDLc levels estimated. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression were used to adjust the estimates for confounders.

Results:

Males who were inactive at 18 and active at 23 years had 41% lower risk (β = 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.40; 0.89) for borderline-high triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dL) as compared with those who were inactive at both follow-ups. No association was found between changes of physical activity and HDLc level. In cross-sectional analyses, greater HDLc levels were found in active subjects in 4 domains, whereas there was no difference in HDL levels according physical activity during leisure time.

Conclusion:

Becoming active from adolescence to early adulthood reduced the risk for high triglycerides. Current physical activity was associated with greater HDLc levels.

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Andrea Wendt Böhm, Grégore Iven Mielke, Maurício Feijó da Cruz, Virgílio Viana Ramires, and Fernando C. Wehrmeister

Background:

Physical inactivity in elderly is a public health problem. The purpose of this study is to describe and test the association between social support and leisure-time physical activity among the elderly.

Methods:

A cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,285 subjects (60+ years old) living in a city in southern Brazil was carried out in 2014. Physical activity practice was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [leisure domain: at least 150 minutes per week of walking + moderate physical activity + 2(vigorous physical activity)], while social support was measured using the Physical Activity Social Support Scale.

Results:

The prevalence of elderly who reached the recommendations of leisure-time physical activity was 18.4%. The elderly persons who had the company of family or friends to walk had a 2.45 times higher prevalence of reaching the recommendations of physical activity in leisure than those who did not. Those who had company of friends to practice moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were 3.23 times more likely to reach physical activity recommendations than their counterparts. The least common social support was the joint practice for walking and for MVPA.

Conclusions:

Strategies that incentivize family members and friends to provide social support to the elderly for physical activity focusing on joint practice must be encouraged.

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Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Virgílio Viana Ramires, Matheus Alves Souza, Daniel Souza Moraes, Fabrício Godoy Petry, Eduardo Soldera Oliveira, Sandro Viana Ramires, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

Physical fitness is strongly associated with several positive health indicators among adolescents. However, its association with body mass index status is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore the association between overweight/obesity and physical fitness among children and adolescents.

Methods:

The design consisted of a cross-sectional study comprising 519 Brazilian students age 7 to 15 years. BMI status was assessed according to sex- and age-specific growth charts. Physical fitness was assessed using 8 tests: sit-and-reach, stationary long jump, 1-minute curl-up, modified pull-up, medicine-ball throw, 9-minute run, 20-m run, and 4-m shuttle-run.

Results:

Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 24% and 12%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls in all tests, except flexibility. Normal weight students performed better than overweight and obese students in all tests, except the sit-and-reach and the medicine-ball throw. Cardiorespiratory fitness had the strongest association with BMI status. The prevalence of obese subjects classified as “most fit” was less than 10%.

Conclusions:

Higher values of body mass index were associated with declines in physical fitness, independent of age. The majority of obese children and adolescents and almost a half of those overweight were classified in the third tertile of physical fitness (least fit).