Purpose: To study mental health, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness in young athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted. The main outcome measures included sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Results: Study participants included 756 athletes with a mean age of 13.5 years. A total of 39% (n = 296/756) reported not meeting current sleep recommendations for age. Athletes >12 years and with a self-reported anxiety and/or depression history were less likely to meet sleep recommendations and showed higher daytime sleepiness (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.2, 1.4], β [SE] = 3.06 [0.74], respectively). Athletes with goal-oriented reasons for playing versus enjoyment (52% vs. 35%, aOR = 1.70, 95% CI [1.12, 2.58]) were less likely to meet sleep recommendations. Night time internet access and weeknight homework hours were negatively associated with sleep recommendations (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI [1.68, 2.47] and aOR = 3.11, 95% CI [1.82, 5.3]) and positively associated with daytime sleepiness (β [SE] = 1.44 [0.45] and 2.28 [0.59]). Conclusions: Many young athletes are not meeting sleep recommendations. Associated factors include mental health, reasons for play, internet access, and homework demand.
Lack of Sleep Among Adolescent Athletes Is Associated With a Higher Prevalence of Self-Reported History of Anxiety and Depression
Andrea Stracciolini, Caitlin M. McCracken, William P. Meehan III, and Matthew D. Milewski
Transition-Related Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health Outcomes in Former National Football League Players: An NFL-LONG Study
J.D. DeFreese, Samuel R. Walton, Zachary Yukio Kerr, Benjamin L. Brett, Avinash Chandran, Rebekah Mannix, Hope Campbell, Ruben J. Echemendia, Michael A. McCrea, William P. Meehan III, and Kevin M. Guskiewicz
Transition from professional sport to nonsport endeavors has implications for postcareer health and well-being of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations among transition-related psychosocial factors and current mental health outcomes in former National Football League (NFL) players. Participants were former NFL players (n = 1,784; mean age = 52.3 ± 16.3 years) who responded to a questionnaire assessing the nature of their discontinuation from professional football (i.e., any degree of voluntary choice vs. forced discontinuation), prediscontinuation transition planning (yes vs. no), and current symptoms of depression and anxiety. After adjusting for relevant covariates, having an involuntary discontinuation and no transition plan prior to discontinuation were associated with greater depressive and anxiety symptom severity. Autonomy in discontinuation and pretransition planning are important to former NFL football players’ mental health. Increasing autonomy in the discontinuation decision and pretransition planning represent psychoeducational intervention targets for this population.
Transition (From Sport) Experiences of Former National Football League Players: An NFL-LONG Study
J.D. DeFreese, Erianne A. Weight, Landon B. Lempke, Samuel R. Walton, Zachary Yukio Kerr, Benjamin L. Brett, Avinash Chandran, Rebekah Mannix, Ruben J. Echemendia, Michael A. McCrea, William P. Meehan III, and Kevin M. Guskiewicz
Transition from professional football life has important implications for the health and well-being of former National Football League (NFL) players. The study purpose was to examine former NFL players’ experiences of transitioning from sport including factors that helped and factors that made transition difficult. This study used a convenience sample of former NFL players drawn from a larger study of health and function. Participants included 1,784 former NFL players, mean age = 52.3 ± 16.3 years, 59% White, and a discontinuation mean of 24.0 ± 15.6 years after leaving the league. Participants responded to open-ended transition questions via mail or electronic questionnaire with responses analyzed using conceptual content analysis. The most frequently reported factors that helped transition included career transition plan/options (48%) and social support (40%). Whereas, structure- (33%) and identity-related (23%) difficulties were reported as factors that made transition difficult. Findings identify areas for targeted interventions to enhance NFL player well-being during transition from sport.