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Experimental Design and Research Methodology in Aging: Implications for Research and Clinical Practice

Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

This paper presents a brief overview of some of the major issues associated with research design in experimental gerontology. The intention is not to provide a comprehensive and detailed guide to experimental design and research methods. Rather, the paper focuses on a more general discussion of several issues associated with the design, implementation, and interpretation of research in an attempt to illustrate why a rudimentary knowledge of these topics is essential for all researchers and practitioners involved in the study of the aging process. Wherever possible, specific examples from the exercise science and applied health literature are selected in order to illustrate the significance of these factors for our field of expertise.

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Great Beginnings for JAPA

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

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Assessing Physical Performance in Older Adult Populations

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

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“Editor’s Forum” Will Seek Input from Exercise Professionals and Seniors

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

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The World Health Organization Issues Guidelines for Promoting Physical Activity among Older Persons

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

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5th World Congress on Physical Activity, Aging, and Sports Celebrates the United Nations “International Year of Older Persons”

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

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A Future Role for Technology in Promoting Physically Active Lifestyles in Older Adults

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

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Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines

Toshiki Ohta, Izumi Tabata, and Yumiko Mochizuki

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines were compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. A broad definition of physical activity was adopted in this report. Objectives of physical activity were (a) maintaining and promoting health, (b) preventing and treating disease, (c) reducing stress, (d) promoting development in childhood, (e) maintaining and improving independence in older people, (f) managing symptoms associated with menopause, and (g) promoting general psychological well-being.

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Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines

Toshiki Ohta, Izumi Tabata, and Yumiko Mochizuki

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines were compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. A broad definition of physical activity was adopted in this report. Objectives of physical activity were (a) maintaining and promoting health, (b) preventing and treating disease, (c) reducing stress, (d) promoting development in childhood, (e) maintaining and improving independence in older people, (f) managing symptoms associated with menopause, and (g) promoting general psychological well-being.

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Development and Evaluation of “Aging Well and Healthily”: A Health-Education and Exercise Program for Community-Living Older Adults

Marijke Hopman-Rock and Marja H. Westhoff

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Aging Well and Healthily (AWH) program consists of health education by peers and low-intensity exercise. It was evaluated via a small randomized controlled trial and a community intervention trial involving older adults in the Netherlands. Reasons stated for participation were to exercise (35%), to acquire information about health (28%), and for social reasons (12%). The program was rated 8.2 on a 10-point scale. Twenty-five percent of participants joined exercise groups after the program ended, and 28% intended to do so. The mean physical activity score improved from 2.6 to 4.6 at follow-up (F = 16.9, p = .00) and was for the least active participants significantly different from that of the control group (F = 22.9, p = .02). Four to 6 months later, 60% of respondents reported still doing the exercises regularly at home. It is concluded that AWH is a potentially effective program for older adults.