This research studied stacking—position segregation by race or ethnicity in team sports—in the 1992 Major League Baseball season using a multivariate analysis, with control variables of height, weight, age, power, speed, and skill. The strong relationship between race and centrality found in previous studies was confirmed; African-American players were predominantly in the outfield positions, Latino players in the middle infield positions, and white players in the most central position of catcher, as well as the other infield positions. The multiple regression analyses revealed direct effects of some control variables on centrality; however, only the variable of speed was found significantly to reduce the bivariate relationship between being African-Americans and centrality. A proportion of the variance in allocation of African-Americans to the outfield may thus be due to this job-related ability; the residual race effects, which account for the majority of the explained variance, must at present still be attributed to direct discrimination.
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Benjamin Margolis and Jane Allyn Piliavin
Benjamin T. Schumacher, John Bellettiere, Michael J. LaMonte, Kelly R. Evenson, Chongzhi Di, I-Min Lee, David A. Sleet, Charles B. Eaton, Cora E. Lewis, Karen L. Margolis, Lesley F. Tinker, and Andrea Z. LaCroix
Steps per day were measured by accelerometer for 7 days among 5,545 women aged 63–97 years between 2012 and 2014. Incident falls were ascertained from daily fall calendars for 13 months. Median steps per day were 3,216. There were 5,473 falls recorded over 61,564 fall calendar-months. The adjusted incidence rate ratio comparing women in the highest versus lowest step quartiles was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [0.54, 0.95]; p trend across quartiles = .01). After further adjustment for physical function using the Short Physical Performance Battery, the incidence rate ratio was 0.86 ([0.64, 1.16]; p trend = .27). Mediation analysis estimated that 63.7% of the association may be mediated by physical function (p = .03). In conclusion, higher steps per day were related to lower incident falls primarily through their beneficial association with physical functioning. Interventions that improve physical function, including those that involve stepping, could reduce falls in older adults.