Clinical Scenario: ReBound is a portable shortwave diathermy unit used to heat tissues using the same principle as induction drum shortwave diathermy. It is unclear if ReBound can vigorously (4°C) heat intramuscular tissue as efficiently as other thermal agents. Clinical Question: In adults (P), is ReBound diathermy (I) compared with other thermal agents (C) effective at increasing intramuscular tissue temperature by 4°C (O)? Summary of Key Findings: (1) Three studies were included for review, all randomized crossover studies. (2) All studies agreed ReBound does not achieve vigorous (4°C) heating effects during a 30-minute treatment to the triceps surae muscle (depth = 1 and 3 cm). (3) Studies agreed that the heat generated by ReBound dissipates slower than (P < .001) or similar to pulsed shortwave diathermy at 3 cm and faster than moist hot packs (P < .001) at 1 cm. (4) One study found that intramuscular tissue temperatures increased more with ReBound (3.69°C [1.50°C]) than moist hot packs (2.82°C [0.90°C]) at superficial depths (1 cm, d = 0.70). (5) Two studies compared ReBound with MegaPulse II pulsed shortwave diathermy at a 3 cm depth. One found that the MegaPulse II increased intramuscular tissue temperature by 4.32°C (1.79°C) compared with the ReBound’s 2.31°C (0.87°C) increase (d = 1.43). The final study reported that the MegaPulse II increased triceps surae muscle temperature by 3.47°C (0.92°C) versus ReBound at 3.08°C (1.19°C) (d = 0.37). (6) The combined results are an increase of 3.81 (1.38°C) for the MegaPulse II and 2.77 (1.12°C) for ReBound (d = 0.83). Clinical Bottom Line: Results strongly indicate that the ReBound should not be used for vigorous (4°C) heating effects in the triceps surae muscle at 1 and 3 cm. Clinicians can use ReBound when traveling or instead of moist hot packs for moderate (2°C–3°C) heating effects at deep and superficial levels (1 and 3 cm) for large treatment areas with subcutaneous fat thickness <15 mm. Strength of Recommendation: Consistent level B findings indicate that ReBound does not achieve vigorous heating effects (4°C).
Alissa C. Rhode, Lauren M. Lavelle, and David C. Berry
Michael G. Miller, David C. Berry, Susan Bullard, and Roger Gilders
Land and aquatic plyometrics have clinical relevance for exercise, sport performance, and rehabilitation, yet study is limited comparing both.
To compare the effects of land-based and aquatic-based plyometric-training programs on performance variables, muscle soreness, and range of motion (ROM).
Aquatic facility and biomechanics laboratory.
Forty subjects randomly assigned to 3 groups: land (n = 13), water (n = 13), and control (n = 14).
Main Outcome Measures:
Performance variables, muscle soreness, and ROM were measured before and after an 8-week training period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a Bonferroni post hoc test determined significance.
ANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups with respect to plantar-flexion ROM (P < .05). Paired t test determined that the aquatic group significantly increased muscle power pretest to posttest (P < .05).
Results indicate that aquatic plyometric training can be an alternative approach to enhancing performance.