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The Effects of a Bug-In-The-Ear Device on Intralesson Communication between a Student Teacher and a Cooperating Teacher

David Kahan

This case study of a student teacher (ST) and her cooperating teacher (CT) employed an AB1B2A reversal design over an entire high-school-level student teaching practicum to determine the effect of a two-way, bug-in-the-ear radio device on dyadic intralesson communication characteristics, participant role satisfaction with the device, and attitude toward using the device and additional equipment. Likert-scale, postlesson questionnaires measured participant satisfaction with their roles, the communication, and equipment. An exit interview was conducted to obtain explanations for data trends. Intralesson communication was characterized by its short duration (M = 15.8 s) and low rate (M = 0.25 communications/min). It was predominantly CT-initiated, management oriented, neutral, and specific. And it was balanced between descriptive, prescriptive, and interrogative comments. Analysis of exit interviews revealed three themes to explain characteristics of and responses to communication, and the devices used to elicit it: CT/ST interpersonal and professional compatibility, role clarity, and commitment to perceived role function. The radio device/intervention did not differentiate communication characteristics from baseline or reversal phases; however, participants identified it as a discrete and immediate communication tool that promoted ST “with-it-ness” and autonomy.

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Impact of the Surgeon General’s Report: Through the Eyes of Physical Education Teacher Educators

Thomas L. McKenzie and David Kahan

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Physical Activity Promotion on Private School Websites: The Case of Maryland

David Kahan, Thomas L. McKenzie, Maya Satnick, and Olivia Hansen

Purpose: Content analysis of school websites may reveal the degree to which schools value physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA). We used the approach to quantify Maryland’s private school websites’ PE/PA content and associations with school characteristics. Method: The analytic sample (n = 387) was examined for mention of PE-/PA-related content (e.g., curriculum, dosage, intramurals). Associations between content and school characteristics (e.g., grade levels offered, religious orientation) were examined using Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results: PE (∼75% of school websites) was mentioned most frequently, and PA images and PE curriculum (∼30% each) were mentioned least frequently. Elementary and Catholic school websites were proportionately less and more likely, respectively, to mention various PE/PA content. Discussion/Conclusion: Representation of PE/PA content among Maryland’s private schools surpassed that found in previous studies. Nonetheless, relative omission of some content may allude to PE/PA being less valued compared with other academic subjects. Follow-up with stakeholders may help elucidate factors that influence content gatekeeping.

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Tracking District and School Physical Education Time Policies After Legal Adjudication: A Case Study in California

David Kahan, Thomas L. McKenzie, Maya Satnick, and Olivia Hansen

Purpose: Studies tracking changes in physical education (PE) policy adherence after an intervention are scarce. In California, successful litigation against 37 school districts for not providing adequate PE time compelled district schools’ teachers to post PE schedules online or on-site for 3 years. We performed a follow-up study 4 years after the expiration of lawsuit settlement stipulations to determine the level of adherence in the absence of external accountability. Methods: We reexamined the websites of all 37 school districts, 106 schools’ websites that posted time information in spring 2018 (Time 1), and a proportionate 20% random sample of schools’ websites (n = 150) that posted no information at Time 1. We used descriptive statistics and paired t tests to detect differences between Times 1 and 2. Discussion/Conclusion: District websites mostly maintained postings of PE time documents and information, while the proportion of Time 1 posting school websites with such content dropped by 58%–67%. At the school level, compliance to policy mandates was positively, but not permanently impacted by a lawsuit intervention.