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Sahar Boozari, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Ali Amiri, and Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani

Context: Kinesio tape (KT) is a widely used intervention in the fields of sports and rehabilitation. However, its effects on lower-extremity behavior during functional activities are not entirely known. Objective: To test the hypothesis that application of KT can change performance and vertical stiffness (VS) during the countermovement jump (CMJ) before and after a fatigue protocol. Design: A predesign and postdesign to study the effect of KT in 2 situations, prefatigue and postfatigue. In each fatiguing condition, there were 2 conditions with and without KT application on the gastrocnemius muscle. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Fifty healthy, nonathlete participants (26 females and 24 males). Interventions: KT application on the gastrocnemius muscle and a fatigue protocol to induce fatigue in plantar flexor muscles. Main Outcome Measures: Various jumping parameters, including jump height, maximum force, maximum power, rate of force development, eccentric lower-limb stiffness, and VS, were calculated using the vertical ground reaction force data. Eccentric lower-limb stiffness and VS were calculated using a mass-spring model. The studied variables can present lower-extremity elastic behavior and performance during CMJ. Results: The results of a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant effect for KT application. Fatigue resulted in lower values of jump height, maximum power, and VS. Moreover, male subjects showed greater values of jump height, maximum force, and maximum power than did females. Conclusions: The main finding of this study was that gastrocnemius KT has no effect on performance or elastic behavior of the lower-extremity during CMJ. Moreover, KT cannot reduce the adverse effect of fatigue in a functional activity such as CMJ. It seems that gastrocnemius KT is not effective for demanding activities.

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Fatemeh Azadinia, Ismail Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Mojtaba Kamyab, Morteza Asgari, and Mohamad Parnianpour

The characteristics of postural sway were assessed in quiet standing under three different postural task conditions in 14 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain and 12 healthy subjects using linear and nonlinear center of pressure parameters. The linear parameters consisted of area, the mean total velocity, sway amplitude, the SD of velocity, and the phase plane portrait. The nonlinear parameters included the Lyapunov exponent, sample entropy, and the correlation dimension. The results showed that the amount of postural sway was higher in the patients with low back pain compared with the healthy subjects. Assessing the nonlinear parameters of the center of pressure showed a lower sample entropy and a higher correlation dimension in the patients with low back pain compared with the healthy subjects. The results of this study demonstrate the greater regularity and higher dimensionality of the center of pressure fluctuations in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, which suggests that these patients adopt different postural control strategies to maintain an upright stance.

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Shahrzad Mohammadi-Rad, Mahyar Salavati, Ismail Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Behnam Akhbari, Shiva Sherafat, Hossein Negahban, Pezhman Lali, and Masood Mazaheri


To compare the effect of dual tasking on postural stability between patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) and healthy controls.


Single-limb postural stability was assessed in 17 athletes with ACL-R and 17 healthy matched athletes while standing on a Biodex Balance System platform in 4 conditions: stability level of 8 (ie, more-stable support surface) with eyes open, stability level of 8 with eyes closed, stability level of 6 (ie, less-stable support surface) with eyes open, and stability level of 6 with eyes closed. Postural-stability tasks were performed with and without auditory Stroop task. The anteroposterior stability index (APSI), mediolateral stability index (MLSI), and overall stability index (OSI) as measures of postural performance, as well as reaction time and error ratio as measures of cognitive performance, were recorded.


Dual-tasking effect on postural stability was not significantly different between the groups in 3 postural conditions. Only in level 6 with eyes open, for APSI and OSI, patients with ACL-R showed lower postural stability under the dual-task condition. However, patients showed poorer performance on both reaction time and error ratio in all postural conditions.


The patients with ACL-R appeared to sacrifice their cognitive performance to optimize their performance on postural stability. This posture-first strategy was reflected by a more pronounced effect of dual tasking on the auditory Stroop task than the postural-stability task. In situations where maintenance of posture is challenging, giving priority to the postural task at the expense of cognitive performance can ensure safety from balance loss.

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Rasool Bagheri, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad R. Pourahmadi, Elham Jannati, Sayyed H. Fazeli, Rozita Hedayati, and Mahmood Akbari

The first purpose was to investigate the trunk muscle endurance, the second aim was to evaluate the trunk–pelvis kinematics during gait, and the third was to evaluate the relationship between trunk–pelvis kinematics and the trunk muscle endurance. Thirty participants (15 nonspecific chronic low back pain [NCLBP] and 15 healthy) were included. The authors first assessed trunk muscle endurance on endurance testing protocols. The authors next measured the trunk–pelvis kinematics during gait using a 3-dimensional motion capture system. Angular displacement, waveform pattern (CVp), and offset variability (CVo) were also examined. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in (1) the trunk muscle endurance and (2) sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes CVp between groups (P < .05). A significant moderate correlation was found between supine double straight-leg raise and frontal CVp (r = .521, P = .03) and transverse planes CVp (r = .442, P = .05). However, a significant moderate correlation was observed between prone double straight-leg raise and sagittal plane CVp (r = .528, P = .03) and transverse plane CVp (r = .678, P = .001). The relationship between (1) lower trunk extensor endurance with transverse and sagittal planes CVp and (2) lower abdominal muscle endurance with transverse and frontal planes CVp suggests that gait variability in these planes may result because of trunk muscle deconditioning accompanying NCLBP.

Open access

Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri, and Morteza Taghipour

Context: Clinical evaluation of the spine is commonplace in musculoskeletal therapies, such as physiotherapy, physical medicine/rehabilitation, osteopathic, and chiropractic clinics. Sit-to-stand (STS) is one of the most mechanically demanding daily activities and crucial to independence. Difficulty or inability to perform STS is common in individuals with a variety of motor disabilities, such as low back pain (LBP). Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate available evidence in literature to determine 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional kinematics of the spine during STS in patients with LBP and healthy young adult participants using motion analysis systems (electromagnetic and marker based). Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE [National Library of Medicine], Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar) were searched between January 2002 and February 2017. Additionally, the reference lists of the articles that met the inclusion criteria were also searched. Prospective studies published in peer-reviewed journals, with full text available in English, investigating the kinematics of the spine during STS in healthy subjects (mean age between 18 and 50 y) or in patients with LBP using motion analysis systems, were included. Sixteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. All information relating to methodology and kinematic modeling of the spine segments along with the outcome measures was extracted from the studies identified for synthesis. Results: The results indicated that the kinematics of the spine are greatly changed in patients with LBP. In order to develop a better understanding of spine kinematics, studies recommended that the trunk should be analyzed as a multisegment. It has been shown that there is no difference between the kinematics of patients with LBP and healthy population when the spine is analyzed as a single segment. Furthermore, between-gender differences are present during STS movement. Conclusion: This review provided a valuable summary of the research to date examining the kinematics of the spine during STS.