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Effects of Grouping Forms, Student Gender and Ability Level on the Pleasure Experienced in Physical Education

Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner and Gianpaolo Patelli

The purpose of this study was to estimate the main and interaction effects of grouping forms, student gender and ability level on the pleasure experienced in physical education (PE). The participants included 178 secondary school students (M = 13.17, SD = .81), with 72 students enrolled in a basketball unit and 106 students enrolled in an endurance unit. Seventy-eight students participated in PE in alternating groups (alternating ability-based and mixed ability groups), and 100 students participated in mixed ability classes. Pleasure was assessed using a validated French language 10-item scale. The results indicated a significant main effect of grouping forms on the pleasure experienced in the basketball unit and a small but nonsignificant effect for endurance. The students in the alternating groups felt more pleasure than those in the mixed ability classes. Considering the importance of pleasure in PE, the alternating groups appear to represent a good solution.

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The Role of the Type of Sport in the Effects of the Jigsaw Method on Students’ Motivation and Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in Physical Education

Océane Cochon Drouet, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, Cédric Roure, and Nicolas Margas

Purpose: Jigsaw is a popular cooperative method, but its effect on students’ motivation in physical education (PE) remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to estimate this Jigsaw effect and to explore whether the type of sport taught in PE modified this effect. Method: Overall, 136 middle-school students participated in two PE sequences in Jigsaw or control conditions, one in gymnastics and one in racket sports. These two types of sports were selected because they are frequently taught in PE and for their opposing characteristics. Students’ motivation was estimated during the third and sixth lessons of each sequence with a subjective measure, that is, situational interest; moderate to vigorous physical activity was added as an objective measure related to motivation. Results: Compared to control conditions, Jigsaw progressively enhanced moderate to vigorous physical activity and the novelty dimension of situational interest in gymnastics, whereas it undermined moderate to vigorous physical activity and the challenge dimension of situational interest in rackets. Discussion: We discuss the decisive role of the type of sport according to their characteristics when implementing Jigsaw.

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Eating Behaviors Among Male Bodybuilders and Runners: Application of the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

Lisa Chaba, Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner

This article focuses on two popular sports that can put male athletes at risk of developing an eating disorder: bodybuilding and running. Bodybuilders concentrate on gaining muscle mass and runners on leaning body mass. Based on the trans-contextual model of motivation, this study aimed to better understand the psychological mechanisms underlying eating disorders in these athletes. In all, 272 male bodybuilders and 217 male runners completed measures of sport motivation, theory of planned behavior variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention to gain muscle mass/lean body mass), and eating disorders (dieting, control, and bulimia behaviors). The results revealed satisfactory fit indices for both samples. Autonomous and controlled motivations for sport were positively directly and indirectly related to eating disorders in these athletes. This motivational mechanism needs more in-depth investigation, and motivational profiles might help distinguish athletes with and without eating disorders.

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Self-Control Self-Regulation, and Doping in Sport: A Test of the Strength-Energy Model

Derwin K. C. Chan, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, James A. Dimmock, Robert J. Donovan, David A. Keatley, Sarah J. Hardcastle, and Martin S. Hagger

We applied the strength-energy model of self-control to understand the relationship between self-control and young athletes’ behavioral responses to taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, or “doping.” Measures of trait self-control, attitude and intention toward doping, intention toward, and adherence to, doping-avoidant behaviors, and the prevention of unintended doping behaviors were administered to 410 young Australian athletes. Participants also completed a “lollipop” decision-making protocol that simulated avoidance of unintended doping. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control was negatively associated with doping attitude and intention, and positively associated with the intention and adherence to doping-avoidant behaviors, and refusal to take or eat the unfamiliar candy offered in the “lollipop” protocol. Consistent with the strength-energy model, athletes with low self-control were more likely to have heightened attitude and intention toward doping, and reduced intention, behavioral adherence, and awareness of doping avoidance.