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Deborah L. Dewar, David Revalds Lubans, Philip James Morgan and Ronald C. Plotnikoff

Background:

This study aimed to develop and evaluate the construct validity and reliability of modernized social cognitive measures relating to physical activity behaviors in adolescents.

Methods:

An instrument was developed based on constructs from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and included the following scales: self-efficacy, situation (perceived physical environment), social support, behavioral strategies, and outcome expectations and expectancies. The questionnaire was administered in a sample of 171 adolescents (age = 13.6 ± 1.2 years, females = 61%). Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine model-fit for each scale using multiple indices, including chi-square index, comparative-fit index (CFI), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Reliability properties were also examined (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha).

Results:

Each scale represented a statistically sound measure: fit indices indicated each model to be an adequate-to-exact fit to the data; internal consistency was acceptable to good (α = 0.63−0.79); rank order repeatability was strong (ICC = 0.82−0.91).

Conclusions:

Results support the validity and reliability of social cognitive scales relating to physical activity among adolescents. As such, the developed scales have utility for the identification of potential social cognitive correlates of youth physical activity, mediators of physical activity behavior changes and the testing of theoretical models based on Social Cognitive Theory.

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Susan A. Jackson and Herbert W. Marsh

The purpose of this study was to examine relations between women's involvment in sports and three psychological constructs: role conflict, sex-role identification, and multidimensional self-concepts. The three groups comprised female powerlifters competing in a national championship (n = 30), high school female athletes (n = 46), and high school female nonathletes (n = 46). Role conflict was not substantial except for a few specific areas related to conflicting expectations of appropriate female and athlete behavior. Both athletic groups scored substantially higher on masculinity (M) and on self-concept of physical ability than the nonathletic group, but there were no group differences on femininity (F) and few substantial differences in other areas of self-concept. Hence the results provide further support for the construct validity of androgyny and for the multidimensionality of self-concept. The major findings, that female athletes can be more M without being less F, and that female athletic involvement has positive benefits without producing any loss in F or in self-concept, dispels a popular myth about women's involvement in sports.

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Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, Martin S. Hagger, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Brett Smith and John C.K. Wang

The present article conducts a meta-analytic review of the research adopting the perceived locus of causality in the contexts of sport, exercise, and physical education. A literature search of published articles identified three main research foci: (a) the development of instruments that assess perceived locus of causality; (b) examination of the construct validity of perceived locus of causality by investigating the relevance of the self-determination continuum as well as by using antecedents (e.g., perceived competence) and outcomes (e.g., intentions); and (c) integration of Nicholls’ (1984) concepts of task and ego orientation with perceived locus of causality. A meta-analysis using 21 published articles supported the existence of a self-determination continuum from external regulation to introjection and identification. In addition, path analysis of corrected effect sizes supported the mediating effects of perceived locus of causality on the relationship between perceived competence and intentions. Results are discussed with reference to the assumptions of self-determination theory, Vallerand’s (1997) hierarchical model of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, and theories of behavioral intentions.

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard and Yanyun Yang

identity and encourages members to adopt values to motivate collective action that affirms social identification ( Slater, Coffee, Barker, & Evans, 2014 ). Research adopting a social identity perspective highlights the importance of leaders who can serve a protective function against maladaptive alcohol

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Yosuke Tsuji, Gregg Bennett and James H. Leigh

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting brand awareness of virtual advertising in sports. Specifically, the study tested the effects of animation, repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification. An experiment using two Latin square designs was conducted to assess the effects of these factors on awareness levels. Results indicated no effect of animation, while effects of repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification were found to affect viewers’ cognitive responses. Managerial implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.

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Johan Pelssers, Emalie Hurkmans, Jeroen Scheerder, Norbert Vanbeselaere, Steven Vos, Tim Smits and Filip Boen

positively connected to the group. We propose that when older adults identify themselves as an older adult (i.e., feel they belong to the group of older adults) and thus internalize the social older adult identity norms as their own, this identification and internalization will positively impact their

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Bradley Donohue, Marina Galante, Julia Maietta, Bern Lee, Nina Paul, Joanne E. Perry, Arianna Corey and Daniel N. Allen

, including widespread implementation of screening measures to facilitate the identification of mental health conditions ( NCAA Sport Science and the NCAA, 2016 ). Screening for mental health conditions is a worthwhile prevention strategy, as early identification and treatment can reduce severity and duration

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Kristin N. Wood, Amanda J. Wambach, Andrew C. White and Victor J. Rubio

 = 37), and perceived that they were mostly to very successful in recovery from this injury ( n  = 37). Measures Descriptive and quantitative measures of R/S included participant religious and/or spiritual identifications, and reliable and valid measures of religious commitment and health locus of

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Bob Heere, Jeffrey James, Masayuki Yoshida and Glaucio Scremin

The primary purpose of this study was to assess the proposition that identification with a university, city and/ or state could affect an individual’s identification process with a sport team (Heere & James, 2007a). The team identity scale was modified and used to measure multiple group identities. A secondary purpose was to provide further evidence of the reliability and validity of the multidimensional group identity instrument. The results provide some evidence that the group identity instrument is reliable and valid in four settings: team, university, city, and state. For this particular sample, team identity was positively influenced by the associated group identities. The findings support the use of a group identity scale to test different group identities and support the proposition that identification with a focal group such as a sport team does not exist in a vacuum and may be influenced by an individual’s relationship with other groups.

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Brandi A. Watkins

This project revisits the social identity–brand equity (SIBE) model developed by Underwood, Bond, and Baer (2001). The model proposes that marketplace characteristics relevant to sports can be used to enhance one’s social identification with a team, which is assumed to have a positive influence on a team’s customer-based brand equity. The current study has two goals: (a) to provide an empirical assessment of the SIBE model in the context of professional sports and (b) assess the individual influence of the proposed marketplace characteristics on social identification. We report results of a survey of U.S. National Basketball Association fans, which provide partial support for the model. Group experience and venue were found to have the strongest influence on social identification with a team. Considerations for theoretical advancement of the model and practical application for sport brand managers are discussed.