The confusion between the terms open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain becomes even greater with application to the upper extremity. Upper extremity function is very difficult to define, due to the numerous shoulder positions and the great velocities with which the shoulder can move. Classifying exercises for rehabilitation of the upper extremity is very difficult due to the complexity of the joint. Many definitions and classification systems have been proposed; however, none of these entirely encompass rehabilitation of the upper extremity. Using previous classifications we have developed a Functional Classification System that is designed to serve as a template for upper extremity rehabilitation. This system has been designed to restore functional shoulder stability, which is dependent upon proper scapulothoracic and glenohumeral stability, and humeral control; all of these are in part mediated by neuromuscular mechanisms. The objective of our new Functional Classification System is to restore functional stability of the shoulder by reestablishing neuromuscular control for overhead activities.
Scott M. Lephart and Timothy J. Henry
Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner
) and 15.9% had incongruent classification at baseline. When examining participants by health literacy status, high agreement 56 is observed in both low health literate (80.4% classified consistently) and high health literate (85.9% classified consistently) groups. Similar percentage agreement is
Sergio J. Ibáñez, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sebastián Feu
methodology is provided in Figure 1 . Variables Seventeen variables were grouped into contextual information, object of study, classification criteria, research design, and research procedure. The following information was coded for each Doctoral Thesis: (a) Author’s name, (b) Author’s sex, (c) Year of
Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich and Jasmine Thomson
. In addition, the lack of dietary intake data precluded a quantitative comparison to dietary guidelines and classification of intakes as high/low carbohydrate. A follow-up study utilizing in-depth interviews to further investigate the reasons behind athletes’ intended nutrition strategy by training
Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke
health at baseline Poor/average 113 42.7 Good 149 56.2 Not reported 3 1.1 Readiness-to-change classification at baseline “Not physically active” 94 35.5 “Physically active” 170 64.2 Not reported 1 9.6 PA Readiness-to-Change There was a significant increase in the number of participants who
Lütfiye Akkurt, İpek Alemdaroğlu Gürbüz, Ayşe Karaduman and Öznur Tunca Yilmaz
functional levels were at 1 or 2 according to the Brooke Lower Extremity Functional Classification Scale, were included in the study. The inclusion criteria for the patients were as follows: (1) They must have been diagnosed with DMD. (2) They must be in the ambulatory period and be able to climb 4 steps
Kim C. Graber, K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
PETE faculty members developed by Graber, Erwin, Woods, Rhoades, and Zhu ( 2011 ) to reflect the most recent version of the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education ( Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research, 2015 ). After securing institutional review board approval
Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik and Markus Tilp
ankle dorsiflexion ≥5° with knees extended). Only children who had the ability to follow verbal instructions and to walk independently (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I and II) were recruited. Exclusion criteria were forms other than spastic CP and any previous surgery to the
Mark E. Kasmer, Xue-cheng Liu, Kyle G. Roberts and Jason M. Valadao
To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender.
Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon.
1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P < .0001), with more elite performers being less likely to heel strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test.
The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, Ade F. Adeniyi, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Dolores S. Andrade Tenesaca, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Catherine E. Draper, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Katariina Kämppi, Tarun R. Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Estelle Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Daga Makaza, Taru Manyanga, Bilyana Mileva, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Natasha Schranz, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Dawn Tladi, Richard Tyler, Riaz Uddin, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay
on their HDI classification to cover costs associated with the Global Matrix 3.0 initiative. Three different tiers of registration fees ($500 USD for the low HDI countries, $750 USD for the medium HDI countries, $1000 USD for the high HDI countries, and $1500 USD for the very high HDI countries) were