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Nicola Taylor, David Giles, Micha Panáčková, James Mitchell, Joel Chidley and Nick Draper

performance at a global level. The CM-PAT scale is a valuable tool for coaches and researchers that allows for the identification of coachable characteristics that could complement existing measures such as GE and climbing time. However, several limitations should be acknowledged. First, the present study has

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Revay O. Corbett, Tyler R. Keith and Jay Hertel

patients are instructed to consider completing these questionnaires in relation to their ankle, the activities listed in the PROs may further complicate their ability to recall. Questionnaires such as the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) and the Identification of Functional Ankle Instability (IdFAI

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Eric P. Scibek, Matthew F. Moran and Susan L. Edmond

the DS when scoring DV in the frontal and sagittal planes compared with a KD score or gold standard. A numerical optimization analysis revealed that the identification of bar position relative to the foot and femur position relative to the horizontal were common reasons for misidentification. The bar

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Michelle T. Helstein

This article draws on the work of two poststructural theorists, Michel Foucault and Jacques Lacan, to illustrate that although it is possible to posit identity from an exclusively discursive account (Foucault) or an exclusively psychoanalytic account (Lacan), it is necessary to put such accounts into conversation to more productively engage in the process of identification. Through use of an advertisement (in which a female athlete sees herself in a mirror) and an analogy to the scientific laws of reflection, this article illustrates that in order to see oneself (identify) one must recognize something in, on, or through their body, and this recognition of the body is always a misrecognition that might more appropriately be called identification. This article is therefore a reading of identification through the productive exploration of the woman on both sides of the mirror, highlighting both discursive and psychoanalytic accounts of her subjectivity. The pervasiveness of the body within these accounts is notable because it highlights the possibilities of the body as a point of articulation between discursive and psychic accounts of identification. The article also illustrates that even when identity is acknowledge as constructed, fragmented, and multiple, it is still meaningful, material, and political.

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Andrew Yiannakis

This paper presents a detailed analysis of the contributions of sport sociology to the marketing of sport and leisure organizations. In particular, the major steps that comprise the marketing enterprise are reviewed, from the identification of product marketing features to the monitoring of the marketing environment, and the potential contributions of sport sociology at each phase of the process are discussed.

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Joseph P. Winnick

This presentation traces and reviews past and contemporary concerns, issues, or priorities relating to professional preparation with special emphasis on the identification of people who have had a significant impact upon professional preparation, and the graduates of our programs, who will provide leadership in the future.

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Joseph P. Stitt and Karl M. Newell

This paper presents the stochastic modeling of isometric force variability in the steady-state time series recorded from the index finger of young adults in the act of attempting to hold different levels of constant force. The isometric force time series were examined by assuming that the stochastic (random) models were linear. System identification techniques were employed to estimate the parameters of each linear model. Once the models were parameterized, the values of the estimated parameters were compared to determine if a single linear time-invariant model was applicable across the entire isometric force range. Although the overall random models were found to be nonlinear functions of the target force level, within a fixed target level, linear modeling provided adequate estimates of the underlying processes thus enabling the use of well-known linear system identification algorithms.

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John S.W. Spinda, Daniel L. Wann and Michael Sollitto

In this case study analysis, we explored the motives for playing Strat-O-Matic Baseball (SOMB), a baseball simulation played as a board game or online, from the perspective of the uses-and-gratifications theory. In phase I of the study, SOMB manager narratives (N = 50) were analyzed for motive statements. In phase II, an online survey asked SOMB managers (N = 222) to respond to motive items as well as four measures of Major League Baseball (MLB) and SOMB identification. Overall, eight motives for playing SOMB emerged from the 64-item pool of motive items. These eight motives were nostalgia, knowledge acquisition, social bonding, enjoyment, vicarious achievement, game aesthetics, convenience, and escape. Our findings suggest these motives predicted measures of MLB and SOMB identification in significantly different ways. Theoretical implications, future research, limitations, and discussion questions are presented in this analysis.

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Masayuki Yoshida, Bob Heere and Brian Gordon

A consumer’s loyalty to a specific sport team is longitudinal in nature. This longitudinal study examines the effects of consumers’ attitudinal constructs (team identification, associated attachment points, consumer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions) on behavioral loyalty in the context of a professional soccer event. To test the proposed relationships, the authors assess the impact of consumers’ self-reported measures (Time 1) on actual attendance frequency in the first half (Time 2) and the second half (Time 3) of the season. The results indicate that fan community attachment is the only construct that can predict attendance frequency over a longer period of time while team identification, satisfaction and behavioral intentions are not significant predictors of attendance frequency throughout the season. The theoretical model and results reinforce the importance of fan community attachment toward longitudinal attendance frequency and add new insights into the predictive validity of some of the attitudinal marketing measures in the field of sport management.

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Jimmy Sanderson

This research explored people’s expression of parasocial interaction (PSI) on Boston Red Sox pitcher Curt Schilling’s blog, 38pitches.com. A thematic analysis using grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and constant comparative methodology of 1,337 postings on Schilling’s blog was conducted. Three parasocial aspects emerged from data analysis: identification, admonishment and advice giving, and criticism. The findings of the study provide support for previous research that suggests identification is a PSI component, and given the large presence of admonishment and criticism, the findings extend PSI theory by suggesting that PSI theory must account for and encompass negative relational behaviors. The results also indicate that people’s use of information and communication technologies is reconfiguring parasocial relationships as fans take an active role in soliciting and communicating with professional athletes, subsequently creating more opportunities for PSI to occur.