Search Results

You are looking at 111 - 120 of 1,033 items for :

  • "classification" x
  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich and Jasmine Thomson

. In addition, the lack of dietary intake data precluded a quantitative comparison to dietary guidelines and classification of intakes as high/low carbohydrate. A follow-up study utilizing in-depth interviews to further investigate the reasons behind athletes’ intended nutrition strategy by training

Restricted access

Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke

health at baseline      Poor/average 113 42.7  Good 149 56.2  Not reported 3 1.1 Readiness-to-change classification at baseline      “Not physically active” 94 35.5  “Physically active” 170 64.2  Not reported 1 9.6 PA Readiness-to-Change There was a significant increase in the number of participants who

Restricted access

Kim C. Graber, K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

PETE faculty members developed by Graber, Erwin, Woods, Rhoades, and Zhu ( 2011 ) to reflect the most recent version of the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education ( Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research, 2015 ). After securing institutional review board approval

Restricted access

Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik and Markus Tilp

ankle dorsiflexion ≥5° with knees extended). Only children who had the ability to follow verbal instructions and to walk independently (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I and II) were recruited. Exclusion criteria were forms other than spastic CP and any previous surgery to the

Restricted access

Mark E. Kasmer, Xue-cheng Liu, Kyle G. Roberts and Jason M. Valadao


To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender.


Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon.


1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P < .0001), with more elite performers being less likely to heel strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test.


The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.

Open access

Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, Ade F. Adeniyi, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Dolores S. Andrade Tenesaca, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Catherine E. Draper, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Katariina Kämppi, Tarun R. Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Estelle Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Daga Makaza, Taru Manyanga, Bilyana Mileva, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Natasha Schranz, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Dawn Tladi, Richard Tyler, Riaz Uddin, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

on their HDI classification to cover costs associated with the Global Matrix 3.0 initiative. Three different tiers of registration fees ($500 USD for the low HDI countries, $750 USD for the medium HDI countries, $1000 USD for the high HDI countries, and $1500 USD for the very high HDI countries) were

Restricted access

Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jessica K. Washington, Jeffrey R. Dugas, James R. Andrews and Gretchen D. Oliver

functional test has been accepted for clinical use. Thus, LPHC instability was defined based on a specific classification system derived from previous studies. We classified participants as “unstable” if they displayed knee valgus greater than 15° at 45° knee flexion in the descending phase of the squat. 19

Restricted access

Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

tests separately by test position. Table 1 Indicators of Breathing Pattern Classification by Breathing Test and Test Position Test position Breathing test Indicators of breathing pattern classification Breathing pattern Supine Seated Standing Half kneeling Hi-lo Lack of abdominal excursion Dysfunctional

Restricted access

Bradley J. Cardinal, Hermann-J. Engels and Weimo Zhu

The Transtheoreticai Model of behavior change was applied to a sample of 669 preadolescents (M age = 8.2) to determine whether stages of exercise could be observed. Associations between stage of exercise classification and demographic, fitness, and cognitive variables were examined. Stage of exercise classifications, on the basis of the Children’s Stage of Exercise Algorithm, were as follows: maintenance (50.8%), action (36.5%), preparation (3.1%), contemplation (4.9%), and precontemplation (4.6%). Stage of exercise was significantly related to gender, age, and grade level. Controlling for these differences, the relationship between exercise beliefs and stage of exercise was significant.

Restricted access

Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

training group, with an average duration of each training session of 120.80 minutes (SD = 32.37). The classification of competitive athletes was based on performance level, thereby complying with the recommendations by Heidari et al 13 and Swann et al. 41 Athletes competing in the first to fourth German