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Lachlan E. Garrick, Bryce C. Alexander, Anthony G. Schache, Marcus G. Pandy, Kay M. Crossley and Natalie J. Collins

as the test limb for all single-leg squat testing. Classification of Single-Leg Squat Performance Participants were barefoot and wore appropriate clothing to allow adequate visualization of anatomical landmarks on the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb. To facilitate classification of single-leg squat

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Laurent Frossard, James Smeathers, Alison O’Riordan and Scott Goodman

The parameters of the shot’s trajectory were reported for male and female gold medalists (classes F52, F53, F54, and F55) who competed at the 2000 Paralympic Games and the 2002 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) World Championships. The specific objective was to determine the magnitude of differences in these parameters across classes and genders. The release velocity of the shot increased with the performance and the classification for both males (8.30 m/s – 9.96 m/s) and females (4.58 m/s – 8.50 m/s). The measured angle of the shot’s trajectory at release also increased with the performance and the classification for both males (27.54° – 32.47°) and females (9.02° – 34.52°). The position of the shot from a fixed reference point at release revealed a similar trend for both males (2.01 m – 2.68 m) and females (1.16 m – 1.98 m), although it was weaker.

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Jennifer Ryan, Michael Walsh and John Gormley

This study investigated the ability of published cut points for the RT3 accelerometer to differentiate between levels of physical activity intensity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Oxygen consumption (metabolic equivalents; METs) and RT3 data (counts/min) were measured during rest and 5 walking trials. METs and corresponding counts/min were classified as sedentary, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to MET thresholds. Counts were also classified according to published cut points. A published cut point exhibited an excellent ability to classify sedentary activity (sensitivity = 89.5%, specificity = 100.0%). Classification accuracy decreased when published cut points were used to classify LPA (sensitivity = 88.9%, specificity = 79.6%) and MVPA (sensitivity = 70%, specificity = 95–97%). Derivation of a new cut point improved classification of both LPA and MVPA. Applying published cut points to RT3 accelerometer data collected in children with CP may result in misclassification of LPA and MVPA.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

In order to compare their physical fitness, the UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 203 retarded and nonretarded subjects with cerebral palsy from both segregated and integrated settings throughout the United States. The test was administered to subjects between the ages of 10 and 17 by professional persons prepared as field testers. Subjects were free from multiple handicapping conditions other than mild mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the performance of younger subjects on dominant grip strength. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the scores of younger subjects on the softball throw and flexed arm hang. No significant differences between retarded and nonretarded subjects at the .01 level of significance were found on any of the test items on the UNIQUE test. The factor structures of both retarded and nonretarded groups were identical with regard to the items that loaded on specific physical fitness factors.

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Jianning Wu and Jue Wang

In this technical note, we investigate a combination PCA with SVM to classify gait pattern based on kinetic data. The gait data of 30 young and 30 elderly participants were recorded using a strain gauge force platform during normal walking. The gait features were first extracted from the recorded vertical directional foot– ground reaction forces curve using PCA, and then these extracted features were adopted to develop the SVM gait classifier. The test results indicated that the performance of PCA-based SVM was on average 90% to recognize young– elderly gait patterns, resulting in a markedly improved performance over an artificial neural network–based classifier. The classification ability of the SVM with polynomial and radial basis function kernels was superior to that of the SVM with linear kernel. These results suggest that the proposed technique could provide an effective tool for gait classification in future clinical applications.

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Michelle Ihmels, Gregory J. Welk, James J. McClain and Jodee Schaben

Background:

Advances in BIA offer practical alternative approaches to assessing body composition in young adolescents and have not been studied for comparability.

Methods:

This study compared reliability and convergent validity of three field tests (2-site skinfold, Omron and Tanita BIA devices) on young adolescents. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients, convergent validity was examined by computing correlations among the three estimates, differences in estimated body fat values were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA, and classification agreement was computed for achieving FITNESSGRAM ® Healthy Fitness Zone.

Results:

ICC values of all three measures exceeded .97. Correlations ranged from .74 to .81 for males and .79 to .91 for females. Classification agreement values ranged from 82.8% to 92.6%.

Conclusions:

Results suggest general agreement among the selected methods of body composition assessments in both boys and girls with the exception that percent body fat in boys by Tanita BIA is significantly lower than skinfold estimation.

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Kim C. Graber, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Jamie A. O’Connor and Jenny M. Linker

Civic engagement and service learning opportunities provide students with unique real-world experiences they are unable to acquire in a traditional in-class setting. Students develop a commitment to the community in which they live, exposure to other populations, leadership abilities, skills to work successfully within a team, and a chance to learn from failure. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has recognized the importance of such opportunities and has added the Community Engagement Classification to the restructured Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature that addresses civic engagement and service learning opportunities and to describe a university class that was designed to provide undergraduate students with a capstone service learning experience promoting wellness for older adults in the community. Data that were collected to evaluate the success of the class are also described.

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Caroline Davis and Shaelyn Strachan

Some have claimed that the similarities between athletes with eating problems and women with eating disorders (ED) include only symptoms such as dieting and fear of weight gain, and do not extend to the psychopathological characteristics associated with these disorders. However, studies used to support this viewpoint have relied on comparisons between “eating-disturbed” athletes and clinically diagnosed ED patients, a method that confounds diagnostic classification with athlete status. The present study held ED classification constant by comparing ED patients who had been involved in high-level competitive athletics with nonathlete ED. No significant differences were found between the groups on any measures of psychopathology or eating-related symptoms; this suggests that if an athlete develops an eating disorder, her psychological profile is no different from others with this disorder.

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Sheng K. Wu, Trevor Williams and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose was to examine classifiers as agents of social control in disability swimming. The examination centered on three themes: (a) resources used by classifiers to maintain the authority of Sports Assembly Executive Committee–Swimming (SAEC-SW) of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), (b) socialization to become classifiers, and (c) influence of dominant groups. Data were collected using participant observation methodology at national and international swimming championships and a survey of the 18 SAEC-SW authorized classifiers. The results identified six essential features of SAEC-SW classifiers. SAEC-SW classifiers use their medical and swimming knowledge and experience to control the classification process and to maintain fairness of competition. Socialization of SAEC-SW classifiers enables them to play their role appropriately in disability swimming classification.

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Collin Webster, Diana Mîndrilă and Glenn Weaver

Affective learning is a major focus of the national K-12 physical education (PE) content standards (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE, 2004]). Understanding how students might fit into different affective learning subgroups would help extend affective learning theory in PE and suggest possible intervention strategies for teachers wanting to increase students’ affective learning. The present study used cluster analysis (CA) and latent profile analysis (LPA) to develop a two-level affective learning-based typology of high school students in compulsory PE from an instructional communication perspective. The optimal classification system had ten clusters and four latent profiles. A comparison of students’ class and cluster memberships showed that the two classification procedures yielded convergent results, thus suggesting distinct affective learning profiles. Students’ demographic and biographical characteristics, including gender, race, body mass index, organized sport participation, and free time physical activity, were helpful in further characterizing each profile.