The purpose was to examine classifiers as agents of social control in disability swimming. The examination centered on three themes: (a) resources used by classifiers to maintain the authority of Sports Assembly Executive Committee–Swimming (SAEC-SW) of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), (b) socialization to become classifiers, and (c) influence of dominant groups. Data were collected using participant observation methodology at national and international swimming championships and a survey of the 18 SAEC-SW authorized classifiers. The results identified six essential features of SAEC-SW classifiers. SAEC-SW classifiers use their medical and swimming knowledge and experience to control the classification process and to maintain fairness of competition. Socialization of SAEC-SW classifiers enables them to play their role appropriately in disability swimming classification.
Sheng K. Wu, Trevor Williams and Claudine Sherrill
Caroline Davis and Shaelyn Strachan
Some have claimed that the similarities between athletes with eating problems and women with eating disorders (ED) include only symptoms such as dieting and fear of weight gain, and do not extend to the psychopathological characteristics associated with these disorders. However, studies used to support this viewpoint have relied on comparisons between “eating-disturbed” athletes and clinically diagnosed ED patients, a method that confounds diagnostic classification with athlete status. The present study held ED classification constant by comparing ED patients who had been involved in high-level competitive athletics with nonathlete ED. No significant differences were found between the groups on any measures of psychopathology or eating-related symptoms; this suggests that if an athlete develops an eating disorder, her psychological profile is no different from others with this disorder.
Laurent Frossard, James Smeathers, Alison O’Riordan and Scott Goodman
The parameters of the shot’s trajectory were reported for male and female gold medalists (classes F52, F53, F54, and F55) who competed at the 2000 Paralympic Games and the 2002 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) World Championships. The specific objective was to determine the magnitude of differences in these parameters across classes and genders. The release velocity of the shot increased with the performance and the classification for both males (8.30 m/s – 9.96 m/s) and females (4.58 m/s – 8.50 m/s). The measured angle of the shot’s trajectory at release also increased with the performance and the classification for both males (27.54° – 32.47°) and females (9.02° – 34.52°). The position of the shot from a fixed reference point at release revealed a similar trend for both males (2.01 m – 2.68 m) and females (1.16 m – 1.98 m), although it was weaker.
Kim C. Graber, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Jamie A. O’Connor and Jenny M. Linker
Civic engagement and service learning opportunities provide students with unique real-world experiences they are unable to acquire in a traditional in-class setting. Students develop a commitment to the community in which they live, exposure to other populations, leadership abilities, skills to work successfully within a team, and a chance to learn from failure. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has recognized the importance of such opportunities and has added the Community Engagement Classification to the restructured Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature that addresses civic engagement and service learning opportunities and to describe a university class that was designed to provide undergraduate students with a capstone service learning experience promoting wellness for older adults in the community. Data that were collected to evaluate the success of the class are also described.
Michelle Ihmels, Gregory J. Welk, James J. McClain and Jodee Schaben
Advances in BIA offer practical alternative approaches to assessing body composition in young adolescents and have not been studied for comparability.
This study compared reliability and convergent validity of three field tests (2-site skinfold, Omron and Tanita BIA devices) on young adolescents. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients, convergent validity was examined by computing correlations among the three estimates, differences in estimated body fat values were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA, and classification agreement was computed for achieving FITNESSGRAM ® Healthy Fitness Zone.
ICC values of all three measures exceeded .97. Correlations ranged from .74 to .81 for males and .79 to .91 for females. Classification agreement values ranged from 82.8% to 92.6%.
Results suggest general agreement among the selected methods of body composition assessments in both boys and girls with the exception that percent body fat in boys by Tanita BIA is significantly lower than skinfold estimation.
Nelson Cortes and James Onate
Clinical assessment tools are needed to identify individual athletes who possess elevated risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Existing methods require expensive equipment and the investment of a large amount of time for data processing, which makes them unfeasible for preparticipation screening of a large number of athletes.
To assess the extent of agreement between LESS and the iLESS classifications of jump landing performance and the level of agreement between ratings assigned by a novice evaluator and an expert evaluator.
Ratings of drop-jump landings from 20 video recordings of NCAA Division I collegiate athletes, which were randomly selected from a large database.
The dichotomous iLESS score corresponded to the dichotomous classification of LESS score for 15 of 20 cases rated by the expert evaluator and 17 of 20 cases rated by the novice evaluator. For the iLESS, only 2 scores out of 20 differed between the evaluators.
A high level of agreement was observed between the LESS and iLESS methods for classification of jump- landing performance. Because the iLESS method is inexpensive and efficient, it may prove to be valuable for preparticipation assessment of knee injury risk.
Kirk J. Cureton, Ted A. Baumgartner and Beth G. McManis
The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the relation of 1-mile run/walk time (MRWT) to skinfold thickness measures in a national probability sample of students 8 to 18 years of age (NCYFS I and II, n = 11,123) and (b) to evaluate the impact of adjusting MRWT scores for the effect of skinfold thickness on the classification of scores using percentile ranks and criterion referenced standards (CRS). MRWT was significantly related to the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds in all age-gender groups. In 12-year-olds, MRWT scores adjusted for sum of skinfolds by regression analysis resulted in individual percentile ranks that differed by more than 10 from percentile ranks of unadjusted scores in 29% of girls and 39% of boys, and altered classifications on the Fitnessgram and AAHPERD mile run/walk time CRS in 11-14% of boys and girls. It is concluded that the relation between MRWT and skinfold thickness is strong enough, and the impact of adjusting MRWT scores for skinfold thickness sufficient, to justify using adjusted scores for classification of cardiorespiratory capacity as part of the assessment of health related physical fitness in youth. Additional research is needed to cross-validate the equations developed in this study.
James M. Rhodes, Barry S. Mason, Thomas A.W. Paulson and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey
To investigate the speed profiles of individual training modes in comparison with wheelchair rugby (WCR) competition across player classifications.
Speed profiles of 15 international WCR players were determined using a radio-frequency-based indoor tracking system. Mean and peak speed (m/s), work:rest ratios, and the relative time spent in (%) and number of high-speed activities performed were measured across training sessions (n = 464) and international competition (n = 34). Training was classified into 1 of 4 modes: conditioning (n = 71), skill-based (n = 133), game-related (n = 151), and game-simulation drills (n = 109). Game-simulation drills were further categorized by the structured duration, which were 3-min game clock (n = 44), 8-min game clock (n = 39), and 10-min running clock (n = 26). Players were grouped by their International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classification as either low-point (≤1.5; n = 8) or high-point players (≥2.0; n = 7).
Conditioning drills were shown to exceed the demands of competition, irrespective of classification (P ≤ .005; effect size [ES] = 0.6–2.0). Skill-based and game-related drills underrepresented the speed profiles of competition (P ≤ .005; ES = 0.5–1.1). Mean speed and work:rest ratios were significantly lower during 3- and 8-min game-simulation drills in relation to competition (P ≤ .039; ES = 0.5–0.7). However, no significant differences were identified between the 10-min running clock and competition.
Although game-simulation drills provided the closest representation of competition, the structured duration appeared important since the 10-min running clock increased training specificity. Coaches can therefore modify the desired training response by making subtle changes to the format of game-simulation drills.
Jason R. Carter, Penny McCullagh and Rick Kreider
Over the past decade, institutions of higher education have been forced to become more innovative and entrepreneurial, seeking creative solutions to budget challenges. This has been particularly important within kinesiology programs, which represent one of the largest growing sectors of higher education over the past 10–15 years. In preparation for the 2016 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Leadership Workshop, a survey was administered by the AKA to capture key institutional classifications (i.e., Carnegie classification, institutional size, public vs. private designation) and department chair or designated administrator perceptions on entrepreneurial issues relevant to their unit. Sixty-eight of 881 units surveyed responded, yielding a response rate of 7.7%. The majority of respondents (67%) indicated a unit funding model that was based on the previous year’s level (i.e., historical budget model). While the majority of respondents reported that their unit is provided with “adequate to plentiful” resources (59%), this varied widely based on institutional classification. Specifically, baccalaureate institutions (Chi-square 18.054, p < .001) and institutions with < 5,000 students (Chi-square 10.433, p & .015) had the least favorable perceptions of unit resource allocation. For the majority of entrepreneurial activities and partnerships (5 of 8 targeted questions), ≥ 50% of the respondents reported “no involvement.” There was a significant mismatch between actual vs. expected time spent by the department chair on fundraising activities (Chi-square 4.627, p = .031), with higher expectations than actual time spent on fundraising. In summary, the AKA survey suggests that there is tremendous heterogeneity in perceptions of and participation in entrepreneurial activities within kinesiology, and that there remains strategic areas of opportunity within the field.
Geoffrey D. Broadhead and Gable E. Church
Intact classes of mentally retarded and nonhandicapped children were administered the Physical Dexterity scales of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment and the short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Separate discriminant analyses of each data set revealed that the subjects comprised four distinct levels of motor performance. Although overall predicted correct classification was above 65%, misclassifications occurred in each class. Differences resulting from the separate analyses suggest differential program placement for physical education. There is a tendency for the Physical Dexterity data to predict higher levels of motor functioning than the Motor Proficiency data for half of the mentally retarded children.