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John J. Fraser and Jay Hertel

pretreatment to posttreatment in 2 of the 3 IFM exercises. Delignières and Brisswalter 35 described a disparity between perceived effort and physical performance. They postulate that perceived difficulty is more determined by a participant’s personality, self-esteem, self-confidence, and aspiration rather

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Christoph Buck, Anca Bolbos and Sven Schneider

model and the overwhelming role of socioeconomic status . WIT Trans Ecol Environ . 2014 ; 191 : 1697 – 1708 . doi:10.2495/SC141442 10.2495/SC141442 10. Gordon-Larsen P , Nelson MC , Page P , Popkin BM . Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical

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Hayley Guiney, Michael Keall and Liana Machado

-related behaviors between indigenous (Māori) and nonindigenous (non-Māori) older adults, in light of well-established ethnic health disparities ( Teh et al., 2014 ). Rather than surveying a nationally-representative sample of older adults, the authors purposefully recruited samples of Māori and non-Māori people

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Alex Knowles, Tristan L. Wallhead and Tucker Readdy

experience within the activities was influencing their level of perceived autonomy. Lunch Recess Sport Context Participation in the voluntary lunch recess game context revealed a clear gender disparity in participation. No female students from either of the intact teaching groups participated in any of the

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Hannah R. Thompson, Bhaani K. Singh, Annie Reed, Robert García, Monica Lounsbery, Benjamin D. Winig and Kristine A. Madsen

Thus, unequal provision of PE is likely to contribute to race/ethnic- and income-related health disparities. 24 – 26 Efforts to increase compliance with California’s PE law have included administrative complaints as well as litigation in court. The Los Angeles Unified School District, after receiving

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Gemma N. Parry, Lee C. Herrington and Ian G. Horsley

literature, Hogarth et al 5 and Koch et al 7 attributed result disparities to lack of subject familiarization with the technique. Timed push-ups have been highlighted as poor for assessment of force–time performance due to an athlete only being required to move 60% of their body mass—as opposed to the 100

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Joshua Woods

studies related to disc golf come primarily from the literature on public-park use ( Jun, Kyle, & Mowen, 2009 ; Mowen, Alan, Barret, & Godbey, 2015 ; Mowen, Payne, & Scott, 2005 ). Several of these studies examined disparities in people’s use of specific park attractions such as traditional golf courses

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Sasha A. Fleary, Robin Mehl and Claudio Nigg

, Eriksson C . What motives are important for participation in leisure-time activities at Swedish youth centres? Health Educ J . 2016 ; 75 ( 8 ): 972 – 985 . doi:10.1177/0017896916644001 10.1177/0017896916644001 17. Lenhart CM , Patterson F , Brown MD , O’Brien MJ , Nelson DB . Disparity

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Christina M. Patch, Caterina G. Roman, Terry L. Conway, Ralph B. Taylor, Kavita A. Gavand, Brian E. Saelens, Marc A. Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Jessa K. Engelberg, Lauren Mayes, Scott C. Roesch and James F. Sallis

.healthplace.2014.11.007 25497166 11. Neckerman KM , Lovasi GS , Davies S , et al . Disparities in urban neighborhood conditions: evidence from GIS measures and field observation in New York City . J Public Health Policy . 2009 ; 30 ( suppl 1 ): S264 – S285 . doi:10.1057/jphp.2008.47 19190579 10

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Garrett S. Bullock, Taylor Chapman, Thomas Joyce, Robert Prengle, Taylor Stern and Robert J. Butler

from different countries. Understanding the fundamental movement competencies correlated to individual countries of origin may allow performance specialists to create the most effective individualized performance-based programs. 7 Currently, there is a paucity of literature investigating disparities in