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André O. Werneck, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Marcelo Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque, Edilson S. Cyrino, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

how regional and urban disparities influence PA and sedentary behavior in the global population. Although regional disparity in PA has been infrequently studied internationally, 14 , 15 evidence from high-income countries suggests that social and economic disparities could negatively impact PA and

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Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

instruction may not result in improved achievement for all students and indicate that learner preferences may be a primary influence of student achievement in a flipped course. There is some evidence of gender achievement disparity in flipped courses (e.g.,  Hotle & Garrow, 2016 ). The likely reasons for the

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Sasha A. Fleary, Robin Mehl and Claudio Nigg

, Eriksson C . What motives are important for participation in leisure-time activities at Swedish youth centres? Health Educ J . 2016 ; 75 ( 8 ): 972 – 985 . doi:10.1177/0017896916644001 10.1177/0017896916644001 17. Lenhart CM , Patterson F , Brown MD , O’Brien MJ , Nelson DB . Disparity

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Christina M. Patch, Caterina G. Roman, Terry L. Conway, Ralph B. Taylor, Kavita A. Gavand, Brian E. Saelens, Marc A. Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Jessa K. Engelberg, Lauren Mayes, Scott C. Roesch and James F. Sallis

.healthplace.2014.11.007 25497166 11. Neckerman KM , Lovasi GS , Davies S , et al . Disparities in urban neighborhood conditions: evidence from GIS measures and field observation in New York City . J Public Health Policy . 2009 ; 30 ( suppl 1 ): S264 – S285 . doi:10.1057/jphp.2008.47 19190579 10

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Joshua Woods

studies related to disc golf come primarily from the literature on public-park use ( Jun, Kyle, & Mowen, 2009 ; Mowen, Alan, Barret, & Godbey, 2015 ; Mowen, Payne, & Scott, 2005 ). Several of these studies examined disparities in people’s use of specific park attractions such as traditional golf courses

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Christoph Buck, Anca Bolbos and Sven Schneider

model and the overwhelming role of socioeconomic status . WIT Trans Ecol Environ . 2014 ; 191 : 1697 – 1708 . doi:10.2495/SC141442 10.2495/SC141442 10. Gordon-Larsen P , Nelson MC , Page P , Popkin BM . Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical

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Alex Knowles, Tristan L. Wallhead and Tucker Readdy

experience within the activities was influencing their level of perceived autonomy. Lunch Recess Sport Context Participation in the voluntary lunch recess game context revealed a clear gender disparity in participation. No female students from either of the intact teaching groups participated in any of the

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Hannah R. Thompson, Bhaani K. Singh, Annie Reed, Robert García, Monica Lounsbery, Benjamin D. Winig and Kristine A. Madsen

Thus, unequal provision of PE is likely to contribute to race/ethnic- and income-related health disparities. 24 – 26 Efforts to increase compliance with California’s PE law have included administrative complaints as well as litigation in court. The Los Angeles Unified School District, after receiving

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Gemma N. Parry, Lee C. Herrington and Ian G. Horsley

literature, Hogarth et al 5 and Koch et al 7 attributed result disparities to lack of subject familiarization with the technique. Timed push-ups have been highlighted as poor for assessment of force–time performance due to an athlete only being required to move 60% of their body mass—as opposed to the 100

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Hayley Guiney, Michael Keall and Liana Machado

-related behaviors between indigenous (Māori) and nonindigenous (non-Māori) older adults, in light of well-established ethnic health disparities ( Teh et al., 2014 ). Rather than surveying a nationally-representative sample of older adults, the authors purposefully recruited samples of Māori and non-Māori people