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James M. Rhodes, Barry S. Mason, Thomas A.W. Paulson and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Purpose:

To investigate the speed profiles of individual training modes in comparison with wheelchair rugby (WCR) competition across player classifications.

Methods:

Speed profiles of 15 international WCR players were determined using a radio-frequency-based indoor tracking system. Mean and peak speed (m/s), work:rest ratios, and the relative time spent in (%) and number of high-speed activities performed were measured across training sessions (n = 464) and international competition (n = 34). Training was classified into 1 of 4 modes: conditioning (n = 71), skill-based (n = 133), game-related (n = 151), and game-simulation drills (n = 109). Game-simulation drills were further categorized by the structured duration, which were 3-min game clock (n = 44), 8-min game clock (n = 39), and 10-min running clock (n = 26). Players were grouped by their International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classification as either low-point (≤1.5; n = 8) or high-point players (≥2.0; n = 7).

Results:

Conditioning drills were shown to exceed the demands of competition, irrespective of classification (P ≤ .005; effect size [ES] = 0.6–2.0). Skill-based and game-related drills underrepresented the speed profiles of competition (P ≤ .005; ES = 0.5–1.1). Mean speed and work:rest ratios were significantly lower during 3- and 8-min game-simulation drills in relation to competition (P ≤ .039; ES = 0.5–0.7). However, no significant differences were identified between the 10-min running clock and competition.

Conclusions:

Although game-simulation drills provided the closest representation of competition, the structured duration appeared important since the 10-min running clock increased training specificity. Coaches can therefore modify the desired training response by making subtle changes to the format of game-simulation drills.

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Jason R. Carter, Penny McCullagh and Rick Kreider

Over the past decade, institutions of higher education have been forced to become more innovative and entrepreneurial, seeking creative solutions to budget challenges. This has been particularly important within kinesiology programs, which represent one of the largest growing sectors of higher education over the past 10–15 years. In preparation for the 2016 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Leadership Workshop, a survey was administered by the AKA to capture key institutional classifications (i.e., Carnegie classification, institutional size, public vs. private designation) and department chair or designated administrator perceptions on entrepreneurial issues relevant to their unit. Sixty-eight of 881 units surveyed responded, yielding a response rate of 7.7%. The majority of respondents (67%) indicated a unit funding model that was based on the previous year’s level (i.e., historical budget model). While the majority of respondents reported that their unit is provided with “adequate to plentiful” resources (59%), this varied widely based on institutional classification. Specifically, baccalaureate institutions (Chi-square 18.054, p < .001) and institutions with < 5,000 students (Chi-square 10.433, p & .015) had the least favorable perceptions of unit resource allocation. For the majority of entrepreneurial activities and partnerships (5 of 8 targeted questions), ≥ 50% of the respondents reported “no involvement.” There was a significant mismatch between actual vs. expected time spent by the department chair on fundraising activities (Chi-square 4.627, p = .031), with higher expectations than actual time spent on fundraising. In summary, the AKA survey suggests that there is tremendous heterogeneity in perceptions of and participation in entrepreneurial activities within kinesiology, and that there remains strategic areas of opportunity within the field.

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Geoffrey D. Broadhead and Gable E. Church

Intact classes of mentally retarded and nonhandicapped children were administered the Physical Dexterity scales of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment and the short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Separate discriminant analyses of each data set revealed that the subjects comprised four distinct levels of motor performance. Although overall predicted correct classification was above 65%, misclassifications occurred in each class. Differences resulting from the separate analyses suggest differential program placement for physical education. There is a tendency for the Physical Dexterity data to predict higher levels of motor functioning than the Motor Proficiency data for half of the mentally retarded children.

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Merrill J. Melnick and Donald F. Sabo

An analysis of the 434 free communications by the 575 presenters at the first seven annual meetings of NASSS (1980–1986) reveals several important patterns and trends with respect to (a) number of free communications, (b) number of presenters, (c) presenter’s sex, (d) presenter’s institutional affiliation, and (e) dual and multiple authorships. A classification of the free communications by subject matter reveals which research topics are of current interest to sport sociologists. Implications of these data for understanding the current stage of development of the subfield are discussed in relation to Mullins’ four-stage developmental model for scientific specialties.

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Peter Downs and Trevor Williams

This study examines, in a comparative context, the attitudes of undergraduate students toward the integration of people with disabilities in activity settings. The Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching the Handicapped instrument was used to test preservice physical education undergraduates (N = 371) from universities in England, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal on attitude variables previously found significant in North American research. Mann-Whitney U analysis revealed significant attitudinal differences between the variables of gender, previous experience with disability, and disability classification (physical or learning disability); between cross-cultural influences of the Belgian sample and the English, Danish, and Portuguese samples; and between the English and the Danish samples.

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Yeshayahu Hutzler

This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task criteria, (c) limitation and enablement criteria, (d) performance errors, and (e) adaptation suggestions. Four individual case examples are described, referring to the conceptual model and depicting its use in various settings of physical activity, including physical education, rehabilitation, competition, and recreation.

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Hannah M. Badland, Grant M. Schofield and Philip J. Schluter

Background:

Little is known about the relationships between objectively measured commute distance with actual and perceived transport-related physical activity (TPA) engagement.

Methods:

A telephone survey assessed travel behaviors to place of work/study within an adult sample (n = 772) residing in New Zealand.

Results:

Overall, 50% of respondents perceived they could, and 10% of the sample actually did, use TPA modes to commute to their occupation for distances less than 5 km. Differences between TPA perceptions and engagement existed for all distance classifications, and prevalence declined as distances increased.

Conclusions:

Differences between TPA engagement and perceptions were evident. Actual and perceived TPA engagement levels declined as commute distance increased.

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Mark Abel, James Hannon, Tia Lillie, Katie Sell, David Anderson and Geri Conlin

Background:

The Kenz Lifecorder EX (KL) is a relatively new, moderately priced, user friendly accelerometer that tracks step counts and time spent in various intensity classifications. Thus, the KL is an attractive instrument for researchers and the public. However, there is limited research comparing the KL’s output to other accelerometers during free-living conditions. Therefore the purpose of this study was to compare KL versus ActiGraph (AG) outputs of step counts and time spent in various intensity classifications during free-living conditions.

Methods:

Ten men and 10 women volunteers wore an AG (right side) and 2 KL (right side: KL-R vs. left side: KL-L) accelerometers on their waistline during waking hours for one day.

Results:

KL-R vs. KL-L yielded similar physical activity (PA) output. The AG recorded fewer steps compared with KL-L (P = .002) but was similar to the KL-R. The KL-R and KL-L yielded lower estimates of accumulated time spent in moderate PA compared with most AG intensity derivations (P < .003). There were no differences between KL-R and KL-L vs. the AG for time spent in vigorous PA.

Conclusions:

The KL provides similar estimates of step counts and time spent in vigorous PA compared with established AG intensity derivations.

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David A. Rowe and Matthew T. Mahar

Background:

The purpose of the study was to evaluate race-specific FITNESSGRAM® body mass index (BMI) standards in comparison to the recommended standards, i.e., percent fat (%BF) ≥25 in boys and %BF ≥32 in girls.

Methods:

BMI and %BF were estimated in 1,968 Black and White children ages 6-14 years, using methods similar to those used to develop the current FITNESSGRAM standards. Multiple regression was employed to develop age-, sex-, and race-specific BMI standards. Percent agreement and modified kappa (κq) were used to evaluate agreement with the %BF standards, and sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate classification accuracy.

Results:

Race significantly (p < .05) and meaningfully (β = 2.3% fat) added to the relationship between BMI and %BF. Agreement of the race-specific BMI standards with %BF standards was moderate to high (κq = .73–.88), and classification accuracy improved on the current FITNESSGRAM BMI standards.

Conclusions:

Race-specific BMI standards appear to be a more accurate representation of unhealthy %BF levels than the current FITNESSGRAM BMI standards.

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Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau, Yi Fang, You Fu and James C. Hannon

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), aerobic fitness, and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Hispanic children from low-income U.S. schools.

Method:

Participants were 198 Hispanic children from low-income schools (Mean age = 10.3 ± 0.5 years; 119 girls, 79 boys). Waist circumference, height, and cardio-metabolic blood markers were collected in a fasted state. Estimated VO2 Peak scores were also collected. Multilevel generalized mixed effects models were employed to examine the independent effect of WHtR and aerobic fitness classification on a child meeting recommended levels for each cardio-metabolic blood marker.

Results:

A child having a WHtR < 0.5 related to meeting recommended levels for HDL cholesterol (OR = 3.25, p < .01), triglycerides (OR = 2.94, p < .01), glucose (OR = 3.42, p < .01), and related to a lower continuous Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) score (β = −8.5 mmHg, p < .01). Aerobic fitness classification only independently related to meeting recommended levels for HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.94, p = .010).

Conclusion:

Having a WHtR < 0.5 independently associated with favorable cardio-metabolic blood markers and thus serves as an effective screening tool for cardio-metabolic risk in Hispanic children from low-income schools.