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Suzannah Mork Armentrout and Julia Dutove

number of players in each position may not be split evenly. For example, one track may have all the goalies or coaches and the other side does not have enough goalies or coaches. Also, participation numbers may increase more significantly on one side compared to the other, creating a disparity between

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Ted Polglaze and Matthias W. Hoppe

cost of slowing down is negligible, even compared with constant-speed running. Reverting to the incline analogy, running uphill raises heart rate and ventilation, whereas exertion on the way down is minimal but will likely cause muscular soreness the next day. This disparity between the cost of

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Michael Mutz and Marlena van Munster

indicator is used as the measure for gender disparities. Similarly, the population groups with shorter and longer educational careers are identified. Respondents who obtained their highest educational degree at the age of 16 or earlier are considered having a “lower” formal education, whereas respondents

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Matthew Juravich and Brian M. Mills

players, the larger the disparity (variability) in performance. Indeed, the authors show that this supply has related to NBA’s imbalance problem. In this vein, the policy of interest in our work (i.e., the one-and-done rule) artificially inflated the available talent pool to collegiate basketball at a

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Kellen Jamil Northcutt, Kayla Henderson and Kaylee Chicoski

, respectively above the stadium. These comparisons (light vs. dark, faux vs. real, rich vs. poor, and house vs. field) are intraracial disparities used to separate Black Americans from their identity. If you are light, faux, rich, and a house brotha, you are considered superior and have a higher status. If you

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Jemima C. John, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna Hoelscher, Michael D. Swartz and Chuck Huber

efficacious in PA due to an uneven distribution in PA opportunities between the two genders. Equal access to PA opportunities for both genders can help stem PA and self-efficacy disparities that, unfortunately, persist into adulthood. We also observed differences in self-efficacy scores across education

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Werner F. Helsen, Nikola Medic, Janet L. Starkes and Andrew M. Williams

to identify Masters athletes who are relatively younger and relatively older. The first study on the relative age disparities among a population of Masters athletes was conducted by Medic et al. ( 2007 ). They examined a population of athletes from U.S. Masters track and field and swimming. It was

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Phillip Post and Rebecca Palacios

 al., 2005 ; Kushi et al., 2004 ; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2018 ). The health disparities associated with childhood inactivity have led the Centers for Disease Control ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015 ) and the World Health Organization ( 2010 ) to call for greater

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Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Andreas Holtermann, Allard J. van der Beek, Maaike A. Huysmans, Svend Erik Mathiassen and Leon Straker

studies), with interrater agreement on items compared, and group consensus reached in the case of any disparities in item scores. Following this process, the remaining studies were independently scored by 2 raters, with any conflicts in scoring resolved by a third rater. Results Study Selection Following

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Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee and Sukho Lee

aged 2–19 years between 1999 and 2014. 4 Eliminating the health disparities is addressed as one of the goals of Healthy People 2010. PA behaviors among low-income and ethnic minority (LIEM) children and youths must be addressed as obesity and sedentary lifestyles in childhood frequently track into