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Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau, Yi Fang, You Fu and James C. Hannon

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), aerobic fitness, and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Hispanic children from low-income U.S. schools.

Method:

Participants were 198 Hispanic children from low-income schools (Mean age = 10.3 ± 0.5 years; 119 girls, 79 boys). Waist circumference, height, and cardio-metabolic blood markers were collected in a fasted state. Estimated VO2 Peak scores were also collected. Multilevel generalized mixed effects models were employed to examine the independent effect of WHtR and aerobic fitness classification on a child meeting recommended levels for each cardio-metabolic blood marker.

Results:

A child having a WHtR < 0.5 related to meeting recommended levels for HDL cholesterol (OR = 3.25, p < .01), triglycerides (OR = 2.94, p < .01), glucose (OR = 3.42, p < .01), and related to a lower continuous Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) score (β = −8.5 mmHg, p < .01). Aerobic fitness classification only independently related to meeting recommended levels for HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.94, p = .010).

Conclusion:

Having a WHtR < 0.5 independently associated with favorable cardio-metabolic blood markers and thus serves as an effective screening tool for cardio-metabolic risk in Hispanic children from low-income schools.

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Joseph N. Cooper, Tiffany J. Davis and Shaun Dougherty

The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and quality of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) male student-athletes’ college experiences across race, sport, and divisional classifications. In recent years, the NCAA and its member institutions have faced intense scrutiny regarding the purpose of intercollegiate athletics within their educational missions. Additional concerns have been levied at the NCAA for persistent academic performance gaps along gender and racial lines across all divisions. However, limited research has engaged in multidivisional analyses of male student-athletes across racial groups and sport types. Using data from the 2006 NCAA GOALS study viewed through the lens of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the current study examined differences in male student-athletes’ experiences across racial groups, type of sport involvement, and divisional classifications. Key findings indicated salient differences between the social experiences across divisional and sport type classifications as well as significant differences between the academic experiences of Black and non-Black male student-athletes. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

Le but de cette étude était d’examiner la nature et la qualité des expériences scolaires des étudiants-athlètes masculins de la National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) en fonction de la race, du sport et la division de pratique. Récemment, la NCAA et ses institutions membres ont dû faire face à un examen minutieux concernant l’adéquation du sport interuniversitaire avec leurs missions éducatives. Des inquiétudes additionnelles ont été exprimées par la NCAA par rapport à la persistance des écarts en termes de réussite académique en fonction du sexe et de la race dans l’ensemble des divisions. Cependant, rares sont les travaux ayant proposé des analyses multidivisionnelles sur les étudiants-athlètes en fonction des groupes raciaux et des types de sports. En s’appuyant sur les données de l’étude NCAA GOALS de 2006, et au prisme de la théorie des systèmes écologiques de Bronfenbrenner, la présente étude a examiné les différences entre les expériences des étudiantsathlètes en fonction des groupes raciaux, du type d’investissement sportif et de la division de pratique. Les principaux résultats montrent des différences saillantes entre les expériences sociales en fonction du type de sport et du niveau de pratique mais aussi des différences significatives entre les expériences académiques des étudiants noirs et non-noirs. Les implications politiques et pratiques sont discutées.

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Ai-Wen Hwang, Chiao-Nan Chen, I-Chin Wu, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng and Chia-Ling Chen

This cross-sectional study investigated the correlates of body mass index (BMI) and risk factors for overweight among 91 children with motor delay (MD) aged 9–73 months. Anthropometric measurements and questionnaires regarding multiple risk factors were obtained. Simple correlations between BMI percentile classifications and potential predictors were examined using Spearman’s rank/Pearson’s correlations and χ2 analysis. Multiple predictors of overweight were analyzed using logistic regression. BMI was correlated positively with higher caloric intake (rs = .21, p < .05) and negatively with passive activity (rs = -.21, p < .05). When multiple predictors were considered, more severe dysphagia (odds ratio [OR], 2.81, p = .027, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–7.04) and antiepileptic drug use (OR, 19.12, p = .008, 95% CI, 2.14–170.81) had significant partial effects on overweight status. Agencies supporting early development should consider caregiver education regarding the potential implication of feeding style and medication on BMI.

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Michelle A. Sandrey

Objective:

To present the basic concepts of normal composition and structure of tendons and indicate how they are affected by acute and chronic tendon-injury pathomechanics.

Data Sources:

MEDLINE (1970-1999) and SPORTDiscus (1970-1999) were searched using the key words pathoanatomic, tendinitis, tendinosis, biomechanics, pathomechanics, histology, chronic, and mechanical behavior.

Data Synthesis:

Acute loading modes to tendons are based on the response of tendons to tensile and compressive stress. Chronic loading modes are based on frictional forces and repetitive movement.

Conclusions and Recommendations:

With an appreciation of the pathologic changes in acute tendon injuries, the clinician can better understand injury mechanics and the healing process. Until we know more about what is happening in and around the tendon, principally in the early and late phases of chronic injury we will not be able to adequately address injury classification of structures and, hence, the pathomechanics of chronic injury

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Grace Goc Karp, Kay Williamson and Bethany Shifflett

Traditionally, faculty members have had to balance three main components of their work: research, teaching, and service. This balance can be influenced by career stage, personal work orientations, and organizational climate. This study was an exploration of the work roles of physical education teacher educators (PETEs) by gender and tenure status in research or doctoral-granting institutions. A survey was devised to gather information regarding background, workload, institutional expectations, personal skills, sources of support and feedback, and job satisfaction. Respondents (N = 98) from programs cross-referenced with the Carnegie classification system (Carnegie Foundation, 1987), and the Physical Education Gold Book (1987) returned the survey (77% response rate). Frequencies, cross-tabulations, and measures of central tendency and variability for continuous variables were obtained. Results suggested dissonance existed in the areas of research and teaching. Structural ambiguity was evident between institutional values and personal skills, particularly for tenured women.

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Suvobrata Mitra, Polemnia G. Amazeen and Michael T. Turvey

We investigated the 1:1 frequency locking of two hand-held pendulums oscillated parallel to the body's coronal plane. In this configuration, anti-phase defined muscularly is in-phase defined spatially, and vice versa. Coordination equilibria measured by average relative phase were shifted less from muscular anti-phase than from muscular in-phase by detuning (unequal uncoupled pendulum frequencies) and were shifted less in both modes with vision than without. Variability of the equilibria, however, was ordered opposite to their degrees of shift and was unaffected by vision. Demonstrated subcritical pitchfork and tangent bifurcations conformed to the variability classification of anti- and in-phase coordination. Implications for dynamical models, hierarchical control, and definitions of coordination modes were discussed.

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Carl Gabbard

With studies of motor behavior that feature manual control, it is suggested that the methodology used to select subjects in reference to handedness be reviewed. This suggestion is in view of the recommendation that simply asking subjects to identify their writing hand is inadequate to define handedness. Complementing this are recent findings in neuroscience indicating differences, at times significant, in information-processing behavior based on handedness classification. A brief review of recently published studies in two prominent outlets for motor behavior research confirms that most reports provide minimal (and sometimes no) information regarding handedness and the method used for assessment. Recommendations for addressing the problem include using an acceptable preference inventory, selecting only those subjects with strong lateral characteristics, and briefly describing the methodology used for the reviewing audience.

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Jill Whitall

In this paper, I argue that physical activity in the form of exercise provides wonderful health benefits for individuals with chronic stroke but fails to also reduce the wider effects of disability for these individuals. The argument proceeds first with a definition of terms, including the classification framework of health and disability according to the World Health Organization. Next follows a section on stroke, its prevalence, and major motor symptoms, including health status. The subsequent two sections include evidence for the health benefits of exercise and lack of evidence for the reduction of disability. The penultimate section expands upon the direction of research that should move us toward reducing disability. The final section concludes on how kinesiology fits into a model for improving both health and reducing disability for chronic stroke survivors.

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Claudia Emck, Ruud J. Bosscher, Piet C.W. van Wieringen, Theo Doreleijers and Peter J. Beek

Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children with gross motor problems from an elementary school population (aged 7 through 12 years). Sixty-five percent of the sample met the criteria for psychiatric classification. Anxiety disorders were found most often (45%), followed by ASD (25%) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (15%). Internalizing (51%) and social problems (41%) were prominent, as was “stereotyped behavior” (92%) and “resistance to changes” (92%). Self-perceived incompetence was restricted to domains that were indeed impaired (i.e., the athletic and social domains). The results suggest that children with gross motor problems are strongly at risk for psychiatric problems including anxiety, internalization, and ASD.

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Kerry S. Courneya and Packianatian Cheiadurai

The study was concerned with empirically confirming the proposed classification of the performance measures in baseball into tertiary, secondary, and primary measures based on their proximity to skill execution and task performance and with the extent to which these measures were contaminated by external factors. The data consisted of various performance measures derived from the box scores of games played by 10 teams from the National Collegiate Athletic Association during the 1988 season (N=381 games). For confirmatory purposes» the total sample was subdivided into home and away samples (N=762 observations). The results of correlational and regression analyses supported the proposition that the secondary measures would be more closely related to the tertiary measures than would the primary measures. Further» ran differential was the superior tertiary measure relative to win/loss and ratio of final score in reflecting skill execution and task performance. Practical applications of the model and directions for future research are then discussed.