Almost 2 million American children are homeschooled but no information is currently available regarding motor skill proficiency within this population. The purpose of this research was to describe motor skill proficiency among homeschooled children and assess differences in homeschooled subgroups. This crosssectional study screened 73 homeschooled children aged 5–8 years for overall motor skill proficiency using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF). Independent t tests examined differences in motor skill proficiency within the homeschooled population. Mann-Whitney U tests examined differences in motor skill proficiency classification within significantly different subgroups. Homeschooled children demonstrated average motor proficiency. Significantly different motor proficiency was seen among homeschooled children participating in 3 or more hours of organized sports per week, t(71) = 2.805, p = .006, 95% CI = 1.77, 10.49, and whose primary caregiver was employed versus unemployed, t(71) = –3.875, p < .001, 95% CI = –13.29, –4.26. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significantly different motor skill proficiency classification in these same subgroups. Overall, homeschooling showed no detrimental effect on motor skill proficiency. Participation in 3 or more hours of organized sports per week or having an unemployed primary caregiver may improve motor skill proficiency among this population.
Laura Spivey Kabiri, Katy Mitchell, Wayne Brewer and Alexis Ortiz
James J. McClain, Gregory J. Welk, Michelle Ihmels and Jodee Schaben
The PACER test is a valid and reliable assessment of aerobic capacity in children. However, many schools lack adequate space to administer the test. This study compared the utility of the standard 20m PACER test with an alternative 15m PACER protocol in 5th and 8th grade students.
A total of 171 students completed both PACER protocols in a counterbalanced design. Agreement between the two protocols was assessed with correlations, repeated-measures ANOVA, and classification agreement into the FITNESSGRAM ® healthy fitness zones.
The difference in estimated VO2max between the two tests was slightly larger for boys (5th grade, 1.32 ml/kg/min; 8th grade, 1.72 ml/kg/min) than girls (5th grade, 0.14 ml/kg/min; 8th grade, 1.11 ml/kg/min), but these differences are probably not of practical significance. Classification agreement was 88% for boys and 91% for girls.
Collectively, the results suggest that the 15m and 20m PACER provide similar information about aerobic fitness in youth. The 20m test is recommended when possible, but the 15m provides a useful alternative for schools with smaller gymnasiums.
Joseph N. Cooper, Tiffany J. Davis and Shaun Dougherty
The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and quality of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) male student-athletes’ college experiences across race, sport, and divisional classifications. In recent years, the NCAA and its member institutions have faced intense scrutiny regarding the purpose of intercollegiate athletics within their educational missions. Additional concerns have been levied at the NCAA for persistent academic performance gaps along gender and racial lines across all divisions. However, limited research has engaged in multidivisional analyses of male student-athletes across racial groups and sport types. Using data from the 2006 NCAA GOALS study viewed through the lens of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the current study examined differences in male student-athletes’ experiences across racial groups, type of sport involvement, and divisional classifications. Key findings indicated salient differences between the social experiences across divisional and sport type classifications as well as significant differences between the academic experiences of Black and non-Black male student-athletes. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Le but de cette étude était d’examiner la nature et la qualité des expériences scolaires des étudiants-athlètes masculins de la National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) en fonction de la race, du sport et la division de pratique. Récemment, la NCAA et ses institutions membres ont dû faire face à un examen minutieux concernant l’adéquation du sport interuniversitaire avec leurs missions éducatives. Des inquiétudes additionnelles ont été exprimées par la NCAA par rapport à la persistance des écarts en termes de réussite académique en fonction du sexe et de la race dans l’ensemble des divisions. Cependant, rares sont les travaux ayant proposé des analyses multidivisionnelles sur les étudiants-athlètes en fonction des groupes raciaux et des types de sports. En s’appuyant sur les données de l’étude NCAA GOALS de 2006, et au prisme de la théorie des systèmes écologiques de Bronfenbrenner, la présente étude a examiné les différences entre les expériences des étudiantsathlètes en fonction des groupes raciaux, du type d’investissement sportif et de la division de pratique. Les principaux résultats montrent des différences saillantes entre les expériences sociales en fonction du type de sport et du niveau de pratique mais aussi des différences significatives entre les expériences académiques des étudiants noirs et non-noirs. Les implications politiques et pratiques sont discutées.
Grace Goc Karp, Kay Williamson and Bethany Shifflett
Traditionally, faculty members have had to balance three main components of their work: research, teaching, and service. This balance can be influenced by career stage, personal work orientations, and organizational climate. This study was an exploration of the work roles of physical education teacher educators (PETEs) by gender and tenure status in research or doctoral-granting institutions. A survey was devised to gather information regarding background, workload, institutional expectations, personal skills, sources of support and feedback, and job satisfaction. Respondents (N = 98) from programs cross-referenced with the Carnegie classification system (Carnegie Foundation, 1987), and the Physical Education Gold Book (1987) returned the survey (77% response rate). Frequencies, cross-tabulations, and measures of central tendency and variability for continuous variables were obtained. Results suggested dissonance existed in the areas of research and teaching. Structural ambiguity was evident between institutional values and personal skills, particularly for tenured women.
Suvobrata Mitra, Polemnia G. Amazeen and Michael T. Turvey
We investigated the 1:1 frequency locking of two hand-held pendulums oscillated parallel to the body's coronal plane. In this configuration, anti-phase defined muscularly is in-phase defined spatially, and vice versa. Coordination equilibria measured by average relative phase were shifted less from muscular anti-phase than from muscular in-phase by detuning (unequal uncoupled pendulum frequencies) and were shifted less in both modes with vision than without. Variability of the equilibria, however, was ordered opposite to their degrees of shift and was unaffected by vision. Demonstrated subcritical pitchfork and tangent bifurcations conformed to the variability classification of anti- and in-phase coordination. Implications for dynamical models, hierarchical control, and definitions of coordination modes were discussed.
With studies of motor behavior that feature manual control, it is suggested that the methodology used to select subjects in reference to handedness be reviewed. This suggestion is in view of the recommendation that simply asking subjects to identify their writing hand is inadequate to define handedness. Complementing this are recent findings in neuroscience indicating differences, at times significant, in information-processing behavior based on handedness classification. A brief review of recently published studies in two prominent outlets for motor behavior research confirms that most reports provide minimal (and sometimes no) information regarding handedness and the method used for assessment. Recommendations for addressing the problem include using an acceptable preference inventory, selecting only those subjects with strong lateral characteristics, and briefly describing the methodology used for the reviewing audience.
Kerry S. Courneya and Packianatian Cheiadurai
The study was concerned with empirically confirming the proposed classification of the performance measures in baseball into tertiary, secondary, and primary measures based on their proximity to skill execution and task performance and with the extent to which these measures were contaminated by external factors. The data consisted of various performance measures derived from the box scores of games played by 10 teams from the National Collegiate Athletic Association during the 1988 season (N=381 games). For confirmatory purposes» the total sample was subdivided into home and away samples (N=762 observations). The results of correlational and regression analyses supported the proposition that the secondary measures would be more closely related to the tertiary measures than would the primary measures. Further» ran differential was the superior tertiary measure relative to win/loss and ratio of final score in reflecting skill execution and task performance. Practical applications of the model and directions for future research are then discussed.
Koichiro Kanatani-Fujimoto, Betty V. Lazareva and Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky
A method for analysis of time-series data, local proportional scaling (LPS), is proposed and its applications in motor control and biomechanics are discussed. The method is based on comparison of two time curves: a reference curve x(t) and a test curve x'(t'). By assumption, x'(t') is received from x(t) by local affine transformations, local extensions/compressions along the x and t axes [x(t)→x'(t'), where → stands for the local extensions/compressions along the x and t axes]. The aim of the LPS method is to discover the underlying transformations, including gain indexes, time epochs, velocity quotients, time segments, and time quotients. The LPS method can be used for (a) comparing the time-series curves in a concise transparent manner; (b) scaling the curves, bringing x'(t') in conformity with x(t); (c) automatic segmentation of the time series data; and (d) data classification.
Daniel J. Larson and Joel Maxcy
The structural components of sports competitions and the characteristics of sport practices vary significantly. These differences may translate into different optimal employment arrangements for the professional coaches (those who prepare teams and athletes for competitions). While there has been academic inquiry into the practice of sport coaching, there has been little apparent research into the industrial organization of sport coaches. This paper presents a formal model of the coaching practice. The coaching roles as strategists and trainers are distinguished, variation in the significance of the connections in the nexus of team to individual relations is identified, and the various methods of sport preparation are classified. Predictions of the employment arrangements based on model parameters are made and related to some established stylized facts and survey results from both cycling training coaches and athletes. The model and data corroborate that cycling coaches be hired by the individual athletes not their cycling teams. JEL classifications: J22, J24, L23, L83
Janet B. Parks
This study investigated the employment status of the alumni of a large undergraduate sport management program. Information was collected and analyzed relative to demographics, graduate school status, placement strategies, current positions, and salaries. Data treatment included descriptive statistics and chi-square. Statistically significant differences were found (a) between women and men relative to placement strategies, (b) between women and men relative to salaries, (c) between salaries of the major employment classifications, and (d) between salaries in positions related to sport management and those unrelated to sport management. Recommendations included encouragement of further investigation of the significant differences found in this study, utilization of the findings in career education, additional research focusing on career development rather than on employment status, and the use of more sophisticated research designs and more powerful statistical analyses in future studies of sport management career paths.