The stabilizing effect of external support, in the form of strapping, taping, and nine different ankle braces, was tested in 220 functionally unstable ankles. A standard surface EMG, controlled-stress Roentgen test protocol was used, measuring talar tilt (TT) without support and with strapping, tape bandage, or brace. Different levels of TT restraint of external support could be identified. Taping and two braces had a highly significant (p < .001) influence on TT. The mean TT without support was decreased by using tape from 13.4° to 4.9°, by using one brace to 4.8°, and by using another brace to 5.9°. The two braces were effectively fitted for protection during functional treatment. A classification into three grades of effectiveness was proposed. It was concluded that the stabilizing influence of bandages and braces should be measured before these external supports are used to treat acute ankle sprain and protect against sprain injuries in daily living and sports.
Peter H. Vaes, William Duquet, Frank Handelberg, Pierre-Paul Casteleyn, René Van Tiggelen and Pierre Opdecam
Shinji Sakurai, Bruce Elliott and J. Robert Grove
Three-dimensional (3-D) high speed photography was used to record the overarm throwing actions of five open-age, four 18-year-old, six 16-year- old, and six 14-year-old high-performance baseball catchers. The direct linear transformation method was used for 3-D space reconstruction from 2-D images of the catchers throwing from home plate to second base recorded using two phase-locked cameras operating at a nominal rate of 200 Hz. Selected physical capacity measures were also recorded and correlated with ball release speed. In general, anthropometric and strength measures significantly increased through the 14-year-old to open-age classifications, while a range of correlation coefficients from .50 to .84 was recorded between these physical capacities and ball speed at release. While many aspects of the kinematic data at release were similar, the key factors of release angle and release speed varied for the different age groups.
April Y. Oh, Erin Hennessy, Kate E. McSpadden and Frank M. Perna
This study examines the relationship between state laws for physical education and neighborhood amenities for physical activity on weight status in adolescents of low socioeconomic status.
Data from 2 national data sources: Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) and the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) were combined and analyzed.
Multinomial regression models found that adolescents in states with strong PE law were associated with a lower odds of being obese [OR = 0.63 (0.41, 0.97)]; however, when PE law and neighborhood amenities were included, only neighborhood amenities were associated with lower odds of obesity, but also greater odds of overweight status.
This study emphasizes the potential significance of state laws on low SES groups to combat obesity; as well as the potential differential effects of local level factors, and alignment with policy goals for healthy weight.
Beatrice Gorton and Susan J. Gavron
The purpose of this study was to investigate selected kinematic variables of two classes of blind runners, B-1 and B-3, in the 100-m dash. A total of 26 males served as subjects and were filmed in actual competition at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled. Filming was conducted at 150 frames per second with the camera positioned perpendicular to the plane of motion. Kinematic data extracted from the film included center of gravity, displacements, velocities, and selected joint angles. It was believed that the results of this study would be useful for (a) establishing some descriptive data of blind athletes in B-1 and B-3 classes, (b) understanding individual differences among blind runners of two different classifications, and (c) providing empirical data of the running patterns from which implications for the development of teaching/coaching methods might be gained.
Marilyn A. Cooper, Claudine Sherrill and David Marshall
Attitudes toward physical activity were examined in relation to sports classification (nonambulatory vs. ambulatory) and gender for elite cerebral palsied athletes and were compared to attitudes of elite Canadian able-bodied athletes (Alderman, 1970). Subjects were 165 CP adult athletes who competed in the 1983 National CP Games, Ft. Worth, Texas. Data were collected by interview on the Simon and Smoll Attitude Toward Physical Activity Scale (SATPA). SATPA answers were treated with MANOVA and ANOVA, and the Scheffé test was used for post hoc analysis. No significant difference was found among class, gender, and class-by-gender combinations in attitudes toward physical activity. Adult CP athletes have positive attitudes toward the total concept of physical activity, but are significantly less favorably disposed to physical activity as a thrill and as long and hard training than as social experience, health and fitness, beauty, and tension release.
Barbara Thomas Coventry
This study explores sex and racial segregation within television sports broadcasting. It uses logit log-linear analysis to examine the relationship between job classifications within sports broadcasting and such explanatory variables as sex and race. The results show that women are concentrated in competition-level reporting and reporting but are underrepresented as studio analysts and play-by-play announcers. People of color are most likely to be found doing competition-level reporting, followed by studio analysis. They are least likely to work as play-by-play announcers. In addition, people of color are virtually limited to broadcasting baseball, basketball, and football. Although Whites also cover these three sports, they occupy practically all of the jobs covering other sports. The findings regarding sex and race support the social closure perspective that argues that women and people of color would be concentrated in lower positions within an occupation.
Claudia Emck, Ruud J. Bosscher, Piet C.W. van Wieringen, Theo Doreleijers and Peter J. Beek
Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children with gross motor problems from an elementary school population (aged 7 through 12 years). Sixty-five percent of the sample met the criteria for psychiatric classification. Anxiety disorders were found most often (45%), followed by ASD (25%) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (15%). Internalizing (51%) and social problems (41%) were prominent, as was “stereotyped behavior” (92%) and “resistance to changes” (92%). Self-perceived incompetence was restricted to domains that were indeed impaired (i.e., the athletic and social domains). The results suggest that children with gross motor problems are strongly at risk for psychiatric problems including anxiety, internalization, and ASD.
Ai-Wen Hwang, Chiao-Nan Chen, I-Chin Wu, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng and Chia-Ling Chen
This cross-sectional study investigated the correlates of body mass index (BMI) and risk factors for overweight among 91 children with motor delay (MD) aged 9–73 months. Anthropometric measurements and questionnaires regarding multiple risk factors were obtained. Simple correlations between BMI percentile classifications and potential predictors were examined using Spearman’s rank/Pearson’s correlations and χ2 analysis. Multiple predictors of overweight were analyzed using logistic regression. BMI was correlated positively with higher caloric intake (rs = .21, p < .05) and negatively with passive activity (rs = -.21, p < .05). When multiple predictors were considered, more severe dysphagia (odds ratio [OR], 2.81, p = .027, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–7.04) and antiepileptic drug use (OR, 19.12, p = .008, 95% CI, 2.14–170.81) had significant partial effects on overweight status. Agencies supporting early development should consider caregiver education regarding the potential implication of feeding style and medication on BMI.
Jessica M. Lutkenhouse
The present case study illustrates the treatment of a 19-year-old female lacrosse player, classified as experiencing Performance Dysfunction (Pdy) by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP). The self-referred collegiate athlete was treated using the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol (Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007). The intervention consisted of eight individual sessions and several follow-up contacts via e-mail. The majority of the sessions addressed clinically related and sport-related concerns, including difficulties in emotion regulation and problematic interpersonal relationships. Based on self-report, coach report, and one outcome assessment measure, the psychological intervention resulted in enhanced overall behavioral functioning and enhanced athletic performance. This case study suggests that following careful case formulation based on appropriate assessment and interview data, the MAC intervention successfully targeted the clearly defined psychological processes underlying the athlete’s performance concerns and personal obstacles, thus resulting in enhanced well-being and athletic performance improvements.
Cecilia Winberg, Gunilla Carlsson, Christina Brogårdh and Jan Lexell
Maintaining regular physical activity (PA) can be challenging for persons with late effects of polio. This qualitative study of ambulatory persons with late effects of polio explored their perceptions of PA, as well as facilitators of and barriers to PA. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 persons and analyzed with content analysis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. The participants described positive perceptions of PA and its health benefits. PA was used to prevent further decline in functioning, and the type and frequency of activities had changed over time. Past experiences and personal characteristics impacted PA. Support from close relatives, knowledgeable health care professionals, mobility devices, and accessible environments facilitated PA, whereas impairments, inaccessible environments, and cold weather were the main barriers. To perform PA regularly, persons with late effects of polio may benefit from individualized advice based on their disability and personal and environmental factors.