Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children with gross motor problems from an elementary school population (aged 7 through 12 years). Sixty-five percent of the sample met the criteria for psychiatric classification. Anxiety disorders were found most often (45%), followed by ASD (25%) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (15%). Internalizing (51%) and social problems (41%) were prominent, as was “stereotyped behavior” (92%) and “resistance to changes” (92%). Self-perceived incompetence was restricted to domains that were indeed impaired (i.e., the athletic and social domains). The results suggest that children with gross motor problems are strongly at risk for psychiatric problems including anxiety, internalization, and ASD.
Claudia Emck, Ruud J. Bosscher, Piet C.W. van Wieringen, Theo Doreleijers and Peter J. Beek
Alison J. Armstrong, Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier
A theory based model was developed for the evaluation of high performance sport centers (HPSCs) in Canada. The model was developed according to de Groot’s (1969) four-phase interpretative-theoretical methodology. The phases of exploration, analysis, classification, and explanation guided the collection of current program evaluation literature and information on the nature of the HPSC program and its past evaluation practices. Appropriate evaluation models from the literature were assessed with respect to the HPSC program’s nature, and a single theoretical-integrative model was developed with corresponding guidelines for HPSC evaluation. The model is described with reference to (a) the role of evaluation at each stage of the HPSC life cycle, (b) the evaluators and decision makers, (c) utilization of the evaluation information, and (d) a general format for guiding the responsible national sport organizations through the important process of evaluation.
Kerry S. Courneya and Packianatian Cheiadurai
The study was concerned with empirically confirming the proposed classification of the performance measures in baseball into tertiary, secondary, and primary measures based on their proximity to skill execution and task performance and with the extent to which these measures were contaminated by external factors. The data consisted of various performance measures derived from the box scores of games played by 10 teams from the National Collegiate Athletic Association during the 1988 season (N=381 games). For confirmatory purposes» the total sample was subdivided into home and away samples (N=762 observations). The results of correlational and regression analyses supported the proposition that the secondary measures would be more closely related to the tertiary measures than would the primary measures. Further» ran differential was the superior tertiary measure relative to win/loss and ratio of final score in reflecting skill execution and task performance. Practical applications of the model and directions for future research are then discussed.
Koichiro Kanatani-Fujimoto, Betty V. Lazareva and Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky
A method for analysis of time-series data, local proportional scaling (LPS), is proposed and its applications in motor control and biomechanics are discussed. The method is based on comparison of two time curves: a reference curve x(t) and a test curve x'(t'). By assumption, x'(t') is received from x(t) by local affine transformations, local extensions/compressions along the x and t axes [x(t)→x'(t'), where → stands for the local extensions/compressions along the x and t axes]. The aim of the LPS method is to discover the underlying transformations, including gain indexes, time epochs, velocity quotients, time segments, and time quotients. The LPS method can be used for (a) comparing the time-series curves in a concise transparent manner; (b) scaling the curves, bringing x'(t') in conformity with x(t); (c) automatic segmentation of the time series data; and (d) data classification.
Patricia Kelshaw, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell and Shane V. Caswell
A growing topic in research is that of cervical strength to potentially mitigate head impact kinematics (HIK) and concussion risk. The purpose of this research was two-fold: (a) Assess the effects of isometric cervical muscle strength (ICMS) on HIK in high school boys’ lacrosse, and (b) investigate the relationship between cervical anthropometrics and ICMS, to create greater feasibility to approximate ICMS. All participants wore accelerometers during the season, and had their ICMS measured. No significant differences existed among ICMS classifications and HIK measures (p > .05). Cervical circumference showed a positive, moderately strong relationship with ICMS in extension (r = .63, p = .02). Our findings do not support previous research that has identified ICMS as a modifiable risk factor for mitigating HIK.
Kelly A. Forrest
Attachment (Bowlby, 1969/1982) is an interdisciplinary theory of social development that views early relationships with caregivers as central to how individuals learn to regulate attention under attachment-related stress (Fonagy & Target, 2002; Main, 2000; Hesse & Main, 2000). This paper proposes that conditions present in competitive sport situations, such as unexpected conditions, fear of failure, fatigue, and coach stress are likely to activate attachment-related attentional processes of athletes and differentially influence attentional flexibility under competitive stress. The attachment-based approach to performance-related problems in which attentional processes are implicated, such as anxiety, choking, and self-regulation, is discussed. Research using the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996) is suggested to investigate the distribution of adult attachment classification in the athlete population.
Clive J. Brewer and Robyn L. Jones
The purpose of this paper is to propose a five-stage process for establishing both validity and reliability in new systematic observation instruments. The process is contextualized within the working behaviors of elite level rugby union coaches within the practice setting. The sequential stages began with observer training and progressed through the identification of coaching behaviors through induction (to establish content validity), to establishing face validity through a domain-referenced test. The objectivity and reliability of the developed behavioral classifications are determined through an interobserver agreement test while, finally, the researcher’s ability to reliably reproduce data with the developed instrument is determined using a test/retest intraobserver reliability check. The developed instrument (the Rugby Union Coaches Observation Instrument: RUCOI) is deemed able to record the situationally unique behaviors arising from the nature of the sport and of the elite standard, both of which were considered to impinge upon the pedagogical process in the said context.
Jessie M. Wall, Janelle L. Kwee, Marvin J. McDonald and Richard A. Bradshaw
This study was the first to explore the treatment effects of observed and experiential integration (OEI) therapy for the salient psychological barriers to performance experienced by athletes. The hermeneutic single case efficacy design was used to explore the relationship between OEI therapy and athlete psychological functioning. The participant was a student-athlete who met the criteria for the performance dysfunction (multilevel classification system of Sport psychology) category, which indicates that subclinical issues were present. After five phases of data collection, a rich case record was compiled and referenced to develop skeptic and affirmative briefs and corresponding rebuttals by two research teams of three experts (OEI clinician, non-OEI clinician, and sport expert). Three independent judges adjudicated the cases and unanimously concluded that the client changed considerably to substantially and that OEI, the therapeutic relationship, and client expectancy were active variables in the change process.
Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey, Daniel Butterworth and Calvin Morriss
Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained from 15 male wheelchair basketball players performing a successful free throw. Players were divided into two groups, according to their International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) classification (Group 1: 2-2.5 point players and Group 2: 4-4.5 point players). The angle of release of the ball was 58 for both groups. Group 2 released the ball from a significantly greater height than Group 1 (1.57 – 0.12m v 1.78 – 0.17m; p < .05). Although nonsignificant, the following trends were found: Group 1 showed greater ball release speeds and generated greater angular velocity of the wrist at release while Group 2 generated greater shoulder flexion angular velocity at release. In conclusion, players from different IWBF classes tend to rely on different kinematic strategies to produce successful release conditions.
Daniel Lock, Kevin Filo, Thilo Kunkel and James L. Skinner
In this manuscript, we use Bitektine’s (2011) theory of organizational social judgments to develop a framework to Capture Perceptions of Organizational Legitimacy (CPOL). We outline a three-stage framework as a method to measure the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinize a sport organization’s legitimacy. In stage one of the framework, we defined the organizational context of a nonprofit sport organization in Sydney, Australia to establish the classification, purpose, and relationship of the focal entity to its constituents. In stage two, we distributed a qualitative questionnaire (N = 279) to identify the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinized organizational action. In stage 3 we distributed a quantitative questionnaire (N = 860) to test six perceived dimensions, which emerged during stage two of the CPOL framework. The six dimensions explained 63% of respondents’ overall organizational judgment, providing support for the CPOL framework as a context-driven process to measure constituent perceptions of the legitimacy of sport organizations.