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Claudia Emck, Ruud J. Bosscher, Piet C.W. van Wieringen, Theo Doreleijers and Peter J. Beek

Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children with gross motor problems from an elementary school population (aged 7 through 12 years). Sixty-five percent of the sample met the criteria for psychiatric classification. Anxiety disorders were found most often (45%), followed by ASD (25%) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (15%). Internalizing (51%) and social problems (41%) were prominent, as was “stereotyped behavior” (92%) and “resistance to changes” (92%). Self-perceived incompetence was restricted to domains that were indeed impaired (i.e., the athletic and social domains). The results suggest that children with gross motor problems are strongly at risk for psychiatric problems including anxiety, internalization, and ASD.

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Daniel J. Larson and Joel Maxcy

The structural components of sports competitions and the characteristics of sport practices vary significantly. These differences may translate into different optimal employment arrangements for the professional coaches (those who prepare teams and athletes for competitions). While there has been academic inquiry into the practice of sport coaching, there has been little apparent research into the industrial organization of sport coaches. This paper presents a formal model of the coaching practice. The coaching roles as strategists and trainers are distinguished, variation in the significance of the connections in the nexus of team to individual relations is identified, and the various methods of sport preparation are classified. Predictions of the employment arrangements based on model parameters are made and related to some established stylized facts and survey results from both cycling training coaches and athletes. The model and data corroborate that cycling coaches be hired by the individual athletes not their cycling teams. JEL classifications: J22, J24, L23, L83

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Ana Carina Naldino Cassou, Rogerio Fermino, Ciro Romélio Rodriguez Añez, Mariana Silva Santos, Marlos R. Domingues and Rodrigo S. Reis

Background:

The aim of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity among elderly Brazilian women of different socioeconomic status (SES).

Methods:

A focus-group approach was employed. Subjects were aged, on average, 69.9 years (±6.9; n = 25). SES was measured based on a structured interview and women were grouped according to SES classification. Content analysis was used to categorize mentions of barriers to physical activities followed by descriptive analysis of absolute and relative frequencies of similar reports.

Results:

Most common barriers among high-SES elderly women were those within “psychological, cognitive, and emotional” dimensions (33.8%) and “environmental” (29.2%). Among women from lower SES, barriers were inversely ranked, the highest prevalence was verified for environmental (33.8%) and “psychological, cognitive, and emotional” dimensions (25%).

Conclusions:

The results highlight that barriers perception varies according to women’s SES, indicating that physical activity promotion strategies must address such differences.

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Patricia Kelshaw, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell and Shane V. Caswell

A growing topic in research is that of cervical strength to potentially mitigate head impact kinematics (HIK) and concussion risk. The purpose of this research was two-fold: (a) Assess the effects of isometric cervical muscle strength (ICMS) on HIK in high school boys’ lacrosse, and (b) investigate the relationship between cervical anthropometrics and ICMS, to create greater feasibility to approximate ICMS. All participants wore accelerometers during the season, and had their ICMS measured. No significant differences existed among ICMS classifications and HIK measures (p > .05). Cervical circumference showed a positive, moderately strong relationship with ICMS in extension (r = .63, p = .02). Our findings do not support previous research that has identified ICMS as a modifiable risk factor for mitigating HIK.

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S.E. Barber, A. Forster and K.M. Birch

Background:

Physical activity is important for maintaining independence and quality of life in older people living in care homes. Little is known about patterns of physical activity or sedentary behavior in this population.

Methods:

Thirty-three care home residents (82.6 ± 9.2 years) wore an ActiGraph GTX3 accelerometer for seven days, which provided minutes of sedentary behavior and low, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants undertook the Mini-Mental State Examination and care staff reported activities of daily living (Barthel index) and functional ambulation classification (FAC) for each participant.

Results:

Participants spent on average 79% of their day sedentary, 14% in low, 6% in light, and 1% in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Activity levels did not significantly differ between days or hours of the day (P > .05).

Conclusion:

Levels of physical activity were very low and time being sedentary was high. This study can inform physical activity and sedentary behavior interventions for care homes’ residents.

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Cecilia Winberg, Gunilla Carlsson, Christina Brogårdh and Jan Lexell

Maintaining regular physical activity (PA) can be challenging for persons with late effects of polio. This qualitative study of ambulatory persons with late effects of polio explored their perceptions of PA, as well as facilitators of and barriers to PA. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 persons and analyzed with content analysis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. The participants described positive perceptions of PA and its health benefits. PA was used to prevent further decline in functioning, and the type and frequency of activities had changed over time. Past experiences and personal characteristics impacted PA. Support from close relatives, knowledgeable health care professionals, mobility devices, and accessible environments facilitated PA, whereas impairments, inaccessible environments, and cold weather were the main barriers. To perform PA regularly, persons with late effects of polio may benefit from individualized advice based on their disability and personal and environmental factors.

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Marilyn A. Cooper, Claudine Sherrill and David Marshall

Attitudes toward physical activity were examined in relation to sports classification (nonambulatory vs. ambulatory) and gender for elite cerebral palsied athletes and were compared to attitudes of elite Canadian able-bodied athletes (Alderman, 1970). Subjects were 165 CP adult athletes who competed in the 1983 National CP Games, Ft. Worth, Texas. Data were collected by interview on the Simon and Smoll Attitude Toward Physical Activity Scale (SATPA). SATPA answers were treated with MANOVA and ANOVA, and the Scheffé test was used for post hoc analysis. No significant difference was found among class, gender, and class-by-gender combinations in attitudes toward physical activity. Adult CP athletes have positive attitudes toward the total concept of physical activity, but are significantly less favorably disposed to physical activity as a thrill and as long and hard training than as social experience, health and fitness, beauty, and tension release.

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Beatrice Gorton and Susan J. Gavron

The purpose of this study was to investigate selected kinematic variables of two classes of blind runners, B-1 and B-3, in the 100-m dash. A total of 26 males served as subjects and were filmed in actual competition at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled. Filming was conducted at 150 frames per second with the camera positioned perpendicular to the plane of motion. Kinematic data extracted from the film included center of gravity, displacements, velocities, and selected joint angles. It was believed that the results of this study would be useful for (a) establishing some descriptive data of blind athletes in B-1 and B-3 classes, (b) understanding individual differences among blind runners of two different classifications, and (c) providing empirical data of the running patterns from which implications for the development of teaching/coaching methods might be gained.

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Andrew T. Wolanin and Lori A. Schwanhausser

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of subclinical psychological difficulties, as assessed by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP; Gardner & Moore, 2004b, 2006), on the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC; Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007) performance enhancement intervention. Thirteen collegiate field hockey and volleyball athletes participated in a 7-week MAC protocol, and their results were compared to those of a control group of 7 same-sport athletes. Nonparametric analysis of the data offers additional support for MAC as a strategy for enhancing the athletic performance of collegiate athletes and suggests the importance of the accurate assessment of subclinical psychological difficulties to ensure the successful application of sport psychology interventions. In essence, these results suggest that the presence or absence of subclinical psychological difficulties may serve as a moderating factor in performance enhancement efforts.

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Daniel Lock, Kevin Filo, Thilo Kunkel and James L. Skinner

In this manuscript, we use Bitektine’s (2011) theory of organizational social judgments to develop a framework to Capture Perceptions of Organizational Legitimacy (CPOL). We outline a three-stage framework as a method to measure the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinize a sport organization’s legitimacy. In stage one of the framework, we defined the organizational context of a nonprofit sport organization in Sydney, Australia to establish the classification, purpose, and relationship of the focal entity to its constituents. In stage two, we distributed a qualitative questionnaire (N = 279) to identify the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinized organizational action. In stage 3 we distributed a quantitative questionnaire (N = 860) to test six perceived dimensions, which emerged during stage two of the CPOL framework. The six dimensions explained 63% of respondents’ overall organizational judgment, providing support for the CPOL framework as a context-driven process to measure constituent perceptions of the legitimacy of sport organizations.