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April Y. Oh, Erin Hennessy, Kate E. McSpadden and Frank M. Perna

Purpose:

This study examines the relationship between state laws for physical education and neighborhood amenities for physical activity on weight status in adolescents of low socioeconomic status.

Methods:

Data from 2 national data sources: Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) and the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) were combined and analyzed.

Results:

Multinomial regression models found that adolescents in states with strong PE law were associated with a lower odds of being obese [OR = 0.63 (0.41, 0.97)]; however, when PE law and neighborhood amenities were included, only neighborhood amenities were associated with lower odds of obesity, but also greater odds of overweight status.

Conclusion:

This study emphasizes the potential significance of state laws on low SES groups to combat obesity; as well as the potential differential effects of local level factors, and alignment with policy goals for healthy weight.

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Koichiro Kanatani-Fujimoto, Betty V. Lazareva and Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

A method for analysis of time-series data, local proportional scaling (LPS), is proposed and its applications in motor control and biomechanics are discussed. The method is based on comparison of two time curves: a reference curve x(t) and a test curve x'(t'). By assumption, x'(t') is received from x(t) by local affine transformations, local extensions/compressions along the x and t axes [x(t)→x'(t'), where → stands for the local extensions/compressions along the x and t axes]. The aim of the LPS method is to discover the underlying transformations, including gain indexes, time epochs, velocity quotients, time segments, and time quotients. The LPS method can be used for (a) comparing the time-series curves in a concise transparent manner; (b) scaling the curves, bringing x'(t') in conformity with x(t); (c) automatic segmentation of the time series data; and (d) data classification.

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Peter H. Vaes, William Duquet, Frank Handelberg, Pierre-Paul Casteleyn, René Van Tiggelen and Pierre Opdecam

The stabilizing effect of external support, in the form of strapping, taping, and nine different ankle braces, was tested in 220 functionally unstable ankles. A standard surface EMG, controlled-stress Roentgen test protocol was used, measuring talar tilt (TT) without support and with strapping, tape bandage, or brace. Different levels of TT restraint of external support could be identified. Taping and two braces had a highly significant (p < .001) influence on TT. The mean TT without support was decreased by using tape from 13.4° to 4.9°, by using one brace to 4.8°, and by using another brace to 5.9°. The two braces were effectively fitted for protection during functional treatment. A classification into three grades of effectiveness was proposed. It was concluded that the stabilizing influence of bandages and braces should be measured before these external supports are used to treat acute ankle sprain and protect against sprain injuries in daily living and sports.

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Babett H. Lobinger, Martin K. Klämpfl and Eckart Altenmüller

Paradoxical performance can be described simply as a sudden decrease in a top athlete’s performance despite the athlete’s having striven for superior performance, such as the lost-skill syndrome in trampolining or “the yips” in golf. There is a growing amount of research on these phenomena, which resemble movement disorders. What appears to be missing, however, is a clear phenomenology of the affected movement characteristics leading to a classification of the underlying cause. This understanding may enable specific diagnostic methods and appropriate interventions. We first review the different phenomena, providing an overview of their characteristics and their occurrence in sports and describing the affected sports and movements. We then analyze explanations for the yips, the most prominent phenomenon, and review the methodological approaches for diagnosing and treating it. Finally, we present and elaborate an action theoretical approach for diagnosing paradoxical performance and applying appropriate interventions.

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Charles J. Dillman, Tricia A. Murray and Robert A. Hintermeister

Confusion of the terms open and closed kinetic chain and scarcity of research comparing kinetic chain exercises that have similar mechanics and loading prompted this case study. Exercises were classified by the boundary condition of the distal segment and presence of an external load. Classifications included a fixed boundary condition with an external load (FEL), a movable boundary with an external load (MEL), and a movable boundary with no external load (MNL). It was hypothesized that if the direction and mass of loading in MEL and FEL exercises were similar, the electromyographic activity of the primary muscle groups involved would be comparable. Muscular activity was monitored from six shoulder muscles during one MNL, four MEL, and five FEL exercises. The results indicated that MEL and FEL exercises having similar biomechanics produced comparable muscular activity. Evaluation and selection of exercises for patients should be based upon mechanics and loading that achieve appropriate muscle activity.

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Clive J. Brewer and Robyn L. Jones

The purpose of this paper is to propose a five-stage process for establishing both validity and reliability in new systematic observation instruments. The process is contextualized within the working behaviors of elite level rugby union coaches within the practice setting. The sequential stages began with observer training and progressed through the identification of coaching behaviors through induction (to establish content validity), to establishing face validity through a domain-referenced test. The objectivity and reliability of the developed behavioral classifications are determined through an interobserver agreement test while, finally, the researcher’s ability to reliably reproduce data with the developed instrument is determined using a test/retest intraobserver reliability check. The developed instrument (the Rugby Union Coaches Observation Instrument: RUCOI) is deemed able to record the situationally unique behaviors arising from the nature of the sport and of the elite standard, both of which were considered to impinge upon the pedagogical process in the said context.

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Harold A. Riemer and Packianathan Chelladurai

The development of the l5-dimension, 56-item Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ) was based on Chelladurai and Riemer’s (1997) classification of facets of athlete satisfaction. Qualitative procedures included item generation, expert judgment, and independent placement of items in relevant facets. Quantitative procedures, item-to-total correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, involving 172 undergraduate students and 614 Canadian university athletes, confirmed the construct validity of the scale. Correlations between the ASQ’s subscales and scales of commitment and negative affectivity provided evidence of criterion-related validity. Reliability estimates (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged from .78 to .95. The 15 facets of ASQ encompassed salient aspects of athletic participation, performance (both individual and team), leadership, the team, the organization, and the athlete.

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Jessica M. Lutkenhouse

The present case study illustrates the treatment of a 19-year-old female lacrosse player, classified as experiencing Performance Dysfunction (Pdy) by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP). The self-referred collegiate athlete was treated using the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol (Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007). The intervention consisted of eight individual sessions and several follow-up contacts via e-mail. The majority of the sessions addressed clinically related and sport-related concerns, including difficulties in emotion regulation and problematic interpersonal relationships. Based on self-report, coach report, and one outcome assessment measure, the psychological intervention resulted in enhanced overall behavioral functioning and enhanced athletic performance. This case study suggests that following careful case formulation based on appropriate assessment and interview data, the MAC intervention successfully targeted the clearly defined psychological processes underlying the athlete’s performance concerns and personal obstacles, thus resulting in enhanced well-being and athletic performance improvements.

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Kelly A. Forrest

Attachment (Bowlby, 1969/1982) is an interdisciplinary theory of social development that views early relationships with caregivers as central to how individuals learn to regulate attention under attachment-related stress (Fonagy & Target, 2002; Main, 2000; Hesse & Main, 2000). This paper proposes that conditions present in competitive sport situations, such as unexpected conditions, fear of failure, fatigue, and coach stress are likely to activate attachment-related attentional processes of athletes and differentially influence attentional flexibility under competitive stress. The attachment-based approach to performance-related problems in which attentional processes are implicated, such as anxiety, choking, and self-regulation, is discussed. Research using the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996) is suggested to investigate the distribution of adult attachment classification in the athlete population.

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Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey, Daniel Butterworth and Calvin Morriss

Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained from 15 male wheelchair basketball players performing a successful free throw. Players were divided into two groups, according to their International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) classification (Group 1: 2-2.5 point players and Group 2: 4-4.5 point players). The angle of release of the ball was 58 for both groups. Group 2 released the ball from a significantly greater height than Group 1 (1.57 – 0.12m v 1.78 – 0.17m; p < .05). Although nonsignificant, the following trends were found: Group 1 showed greater ball release speeds and generated greater angular velocity of the wrist at release while Group 2 generated greater shoulder flexion angular velocity at release. In conclusion, players from different IWBF classes tend to rely on different kinematic strategies to produce successful release conditions.