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Babett H. Lobinger, Martin K. Klämpfl and Eckart Altenmüller

Paradoxical performance can be described simply as a sudden decrease in a top athlete’s performance despite the athlete’s having striven for superior performance, such as the lost-skill syndrome in trampolining or “the yips” in golf. There is a growing amount of research on these phenomena, which resemble movement disorders. What appears to be missing, however, is a clear phenomenology of the affected movement characteristics leading to a classification of the underlying cause. This understanding may enable specific diagnostic methods and appropriate interventions. We first review the different phenomena, providing an overview of their characteristics and their occurrence in sports and describing the affected sports and movements. We then analyze explanations for the yips, the most prominent phenomenon, and review the methodological approaches for diagnosing and treating it. Finally, we present and elaborate an action theoretical approach for diagnosing paradoxical performance and applying appropriate interventions.

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Daniel Lock, Kevin Filo, Thilo Kunkel and James L. Skinner

In this manuscript, we use Bitektine’s (2011) theory of organizational social judgments to develop a framework to Capture Perceptions of Organizational Legitimacy (CPOL). We outline a three-stage framework as a method to measure the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinize a sport organization’s legitimacy. In stage one of the framework, we defined the organizational context of a nonprofit sport organization in Sydney, Australia to establish the classification, purpose, and relationship of the focal entity to its constituents. In stage two, we distributed a qualitative questionnaire (N = 279) to identify the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinized organizational action. In stage 3 we distributed a quantitative questionnaire (N = 860) to test six perceived dimensions, which emerged during stage two of the CPOL framework. The six dimensions explained 63% of respondents’ overall organizational judgment, providing support for the CPOL framework as a context-driven process to measure constituent perceptions of the legitimacy of sport organizations.

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Jessie M. Wall, Janelle L. Kwee, Marvin J. McDonald and Richard A. Bradshaw

This study was the first to explore the treatment effects of observed and experiential integration (OEI) therapy for the salient psychological barriers to performance experienced by athletes. The hermeneutic single case efficacy design was used to explore the relationship between OEI therapy and athlete psychological functioning. The participant was a student-athlete who met the criteria for the performance dysfunction (multilevel classification system of Sport psychology) category, which indicates that subclinical issues were present. After five phases of data collection, a rich case record was compiled and referenced to develop skeptic and affirmative briefs and corresponding rebuttals by two research teams of three experts (OEI clinician, non-OEI clinician, and sport expert). Three independent judges adjudicated the cases and unanimously concluded that the client changed considerably to substantially and that OEI, the therapeutic relationship, and client expectancy were active variables in the change process.

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Alison J. Armstrong, Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier

A theory based model was developed for the evaluation of high performance sport centers (HPSCs) in Canada. The model was developed according to de Groot’s (1969) four-phase interpretative-theoretical methodology. The phases of exploration, analysis, classification, and explanation guided the collection of current program evaluation literature and information on the nature of the HPSC program and its past evaluation practices. Appropriate evaluation models from the literature were assessed with respect to the HPSC program’s nature, and a single theoretical-integrative model was developed with corresponding guidelines for HPSC evaluation. The model is described with reference to (a) the role of evaluation at each stage of the HPSC life cycle, (b) the evaluators and decision makers, (c) utilization of the evaluation information, and (d) a general format for guiding the responsible national sport organizations through the important process of evaluation.

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Nancy Getchell, Susan McMenamin and Jill Whitall

This study examines gross motor coordination in children with and without learning disabilities using a dynamical systems perspective. In a dual motor task paradigm (walk/clap, gallop/clap), we measured and compared frequency and phase locking and consistency within and across trials in 12 children with learning disabilities and 12 age-matched typically developing children. In the walk/clap condition, groups differed in consistency and in entrainment (increased frequency of 4 limb coupling) over short-term practice. In the gallop/clap condition, groups differed in consistency; neither group showed entrainment. Comparisons within the LD group of participants with and without diagnosed visual-motor problems showed differences in classification, consistency, and entrainment. These results suggest that gross motor coordination tasks provide information about as well as a novel opportunity for early identification of learning disabilities.

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Clive J. Brewer and Robyn L. Jones

The purpose of this paper is to propose a five-stage process for establishing both validity and reliability in new systematic observation instruments. The process is contextualized within the working behaviors of elite level rugby union coaches within the practice setting. The sequential stages began with observer training and progressed through the identification of coaching behaviors through induction (to establish content validity), to establishing face validity through a domain-referenced test. The objectivity and reliability of the developed behavioral classifications are determined through an interobserver agreement test while, finally, the researcher’s ability to reliably reproduce data with the developed instrument is determined using a test/retest intraobserver reliability check. The developed instrument (the Rugby Union Coaches Observation Instrument: RUCOI) is deemed able to record the situationally unique behaviors arising from the nature of the sport and of the elite standard, both of which were considered to impinge upon the pedagogical process in the said context.

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Michelle A. Sandrey

Objective:

To present the basic concepts of normal composition and structure of tendons and indicate how they are affected by acute and chronic tendon-injury pathomechanics.

Data Sources:

MEDLINE (1970-1999) and SPORTDiscus (1970-1999) were searched using the key words pathoanatomic, tendinitis, tendinosis, biomechanics, pathomechanics, histology, chronic, and mechanical behavior.

Data Synthesis:

Acute loading modes to tendons are based on the response of tendons to tensile and compressive stress. Chronic loading modes are based on frictional forces and repetitive movement.

Conclusions and Recommendations:

With an appreciation of the pathologic changes in acute tendon injuries, the clinician can better understand injury mechanics and the healing process. Until we know more about what is happening in and around the tendon, principally in the early and late phases of chronic injury we will not be able to adequately address injury classification of structures and, hence, the pathomechanics of chronic injury

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Amelia Ferro, Jorge Villacieros and Javier Pérez-Tejero

The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to accurately analyze sprint performance of elite wheelchair basketball (WB) players in their own training context using a laser system and to analyze the velocity curve performed by the players regarding their functional classification and their playing position. Twelve WB players, from the Spanish men’s national team, took part in an oncourt 20-m-sprint test. BioLaserSport® was used to obtain time, mean velocities (Vm), maximum velocities (Vmax), and distances at 90%, 95%, and 98% of their Vmax. Vm and Vmax reached high values in Classes II and III and in the guard playing position. The protocol developed with the laser system makes it possible to obtain a precise velocity curve in short sprints and allows easy analysis of decisive kinematic performance variables in WB players, showing immediate feedback to coaches and players. The normalized data allow an interpretation of how much, where, and when Vmax occurs along the test.

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Charles J. Dillman, Tricia A. Murray and Robert A. Hintermeister

Confusion of the terms open and closed kinetic chain and scarcity of research comparing kinetic chain exercises that have similar mechanics and loading prompted this case study. Exercises were classified by the boundary condition of the distal segment and presence of an external load. Classifications included a fixed boundary condition with an external load (FEL), a movable boundary with an external load (MEL), and a movable boundary with no external load (MNL). It was hypothesized that if the direction and mass of loading in MEL and FEL exercises were similar, the electromyographic activity of the primary muscle groups involved would be comparable. Muscular activity was monitored from six shoulder muscles during one MNL, four MEL, and five FEL exercises. The results indicated that MEL and FEL exercises having similar biomechanics produced comparable muscular activity. Evaluation and selection of exercises for patients should be based upon mechanics and loading that achieve appropriate muscle activity.

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Beatrice Gorton and Susan J. Gavron

The purpose of this study was to investigate selected kinematic variables of two classes of blind runners, B-1 and B-3, in the 100-m dash. A total of 26 males served as subjects and were filmed in actual competition at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled. Filming was conducted at 150 frames per second with the camera positioned perpendicular to the plane of motion. Kinematic data extracted from the film included center of gravity, displacements, velocities, and selected joint angles. It was believed that the results of this study would be useful for (a) establishing some descriptive data of blind athletes in B-1 and B-3 classes, (b) understanding individual differences among blind runners of two different classifications, and (c) providing empirical data of the running patterns from which implications for the development of teaching/coaching methods might be gained.