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Melvin Ibana and Priscila Caçola

Handwriting is a core deficit in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Fifty children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition; Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Short Form; Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting (ETCH); McMaster Handwriting Assessment Protocol; and Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery–VMI–6). The results showed significant differences in components of the ETCH between groups (p < .05) and significant relationships between handwriting (ETCH and Beery–VMI–6) and motor ability measures (r > .30). We conclude that the ETCH and the Beery–VMI–6 are sensitive measures of handwriting ability for children with probable DCD, but more research is needed to identify a gold-standard assessment for evaluating handwriting in this population.

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Christine M. King and John M. Dunn

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of classroom teachers in observing students’ motor performance. In order to assess teacher accuracy in rating motor performance, an analysis was conducted on students’ scores on the Short Form of the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-S) between those who were rated high as compared to those who were rated low in motor performance, as determined by a teacher observation form. The two-tailed t statistic indicated a significant difference between standard mean scores for upper and lower quartile performances on the BOT-S (P<.05). However, there was a high degree of variance within the high and low groups. The results suggest that classroom teachers are more accurate in observing high motor performance than in observing low motor performance.

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Robert Kertzer, Ron Croce, Richard Hinkle, and Collette Janson-Sand

Few studies have investigated the fitness levels of children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), with no data presently available on such children’s level of motor proficiency. The present investigation was prompted by this lack of information. Twenty-one girls (mean age = 11.0 years, range = 7-14) and 23 boys (mean age =11.5 years, range = 8-15) with IDDM were tested on selected fitness and motor behavior parameters. Results indicated that children and adolescents with IDDM follow similar fitness and motor behavior profiles of their nondiabetic peers: Boys tended to be in better physical condition than girls of similar ages, particularly in the 12-15 year range. In the areas of body composition and abdominal strength/endurance, subjects displayed values below those obtained in studies of nondiabetic subjects. Subjects’ scores on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency for each age grouping were relatively high, indicating that children and adolescents with IDDM need not have diminished psychomotor skills.

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Motohide Miyahara

The purpose of this study was to identify possible subtypes of students with learning disabilities based upon gross motor functions. Subjects in a private school for learning difficulties were divided into a group of students with learning disabilities and a comparison group. Gross motor subtests from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Bruininks, 1978) were administered to both learning-disabled and comparison groups. The four subtypes yielded by the K-means iterative partitioning method demonstrated distinct profiles. Cluster membership was shown to be fairly stable by internal validation techniques. The external validity of the four subtypes was verified by a teacher’s ratings of students’ physical behaviors. It was recommended that the outcome of type-specific remediation and the longitudinal stability of gross motor subtypes be evaluated.

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Swee Kheng Tan, Helen E. Parker, and Dawne Larkin

We investigated the concurrent validity and discrimination accuracy of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (BOTMP-SF) and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) for identifying children with and without motor impairment (MI). From a total of 69 Australian children aged from 5 to 11 years, 26 children were classified with MI according to three criteria, including the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and were age- and gender-matched with 26 non-MI controls. Performance rankings for the MI/non-MI children on BOTMP-SF and MAND tests were highly correlated (rs = .86); however, only 35% of MI cases were classified alike and 71% of cases were agreed on, overall. Comparing each test with MABC, discrimination statistics revealed MAND was the more accurate discriminator of MI, with higher sensitivity and negative predictive values than the BOTMP-SF. The MAND is a more valid test for the identification of MI in Australian children.

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John Cairney, John Hay, Brent Faught, James Mandigo, and Andreas Flouris

This study investigated the effect of gender on the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and self-reported participation in organized and recreational free-play activities. A participation-activity questionnaire and the short form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was administered to a large sample of children ages 9 to 14 (N = 590). A total of 44 children (19 boys, 25 girls) were identified as having probable DCD. Regardless of gender, children with DCD had lower self-efficacy toward physical activity and participated in fewer organized and recreational play activities than did children without the disorder. While there were no gender by DCD interactions with self-efficacy and play, girls with DCD had the lowest mean scores of all children. These findings are discussed in terms of the social norms that influence boys and girls’ participation in physical activity.

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Robbi Beyer

The motor proficiency of 56 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was compared with that of 56 boys with learning disabilities (LD); both groups were divided into two age groups, 7 to 8 years and 9 to 12 years. Boys with ADHD were taking Ritalin and attending public schools. Boys with LD were medication-free and attending private schools for LD. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP–LF) was used to measure balance, bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination, response speed, visual-motor coordination, and upper limb speed and dexterity. MANOVA revealed significant main effects for condition and age. Subsequent univariate ANOVAs revealed (a) expected age differences on all but one item and (b) significantly poorer performance for boys with ADHD than boys with LD on all variables except balance, upper limb coordination, and response speed.

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Laura Spivey Kabiri, Katy Mitchell, Wayne Brewer, and Alexis Ortiz

Almost 2 million American children are homeschooled but no information is currently available regarding motor skill proficiency within this population. The purpose of this research was to describe motor skill proficiency among homeschooled children and assess differences in homeschooled subgroups. This crosssectional study screened 73 homeschooled children aged 5–8 years for overall motor skill proficiency using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF). Independent t tests examined differences in motor skill proficiency within the homeschooled population. Mann-Whitney U tests examined differences in motor skill proficiency classification within significantly different subgroups. Homeschooled children demonstrated average motor proficiency. Significantly different motor proficiency was seen among homeschooled children participating in 3 or more hours of organized sports per week, t(71) = 2.805, p = .006, 95% CI = 1.77, 10.49, and whose primary caregiver was employed versus unemployed, t(71) = –3.875, p < .001, 95% CI = –13.29, –4.26. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significantly different motor skill proficiency classification in these same subgroups. Overall, homeschooling showed no detrimental effect on motor skill proficiency. Participation in 3 or more hours of organized sports per week or having an unemployed primary caregiver may improve motor skill proficiency among this population.

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Antonis Kambas, Maria Michalopoulou, Ioannis G. Fatouros, Christos Christoforidis, Eirini Manthou, Dimitra Giannakidou, Fotini Venetsanou, Elke Haberer, Athanassios Chatzinikolaou, Vassilios Gourgoulis, and Renate Zimmer

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and pedometer-determined physical activity in 5–6 year-old children. Participants (n = 232) were randomly recruited and assessed from 30 kindergartens in Northern Greece. Two trained researchers administered the measurements for the assessment of children’s motor proficiency by using the BOTMP-SF. Physical activity was assessed by OMRON pedometers. Significant relationships between BOTMP-SF standard score and steps (S), aerobic walking time (AWT) and aerobic steps (AS), (p < .05) were found. When motor proficiency was divided into quartiles to assess the distribution of the relationship between motor proficiency and pedometer- derived variables, significant associations were found for AWT, S and AS (p < .001). Young children with high levels of motor proficiency were more active in contrast to their peers with lower motor proficiency. The findings add to the growing body of literature that considers motor skills/abilities as important elements of physical activity participation. (Abbreviations: S-steps per day; AS-aerobic steps per day; AWT-aerobic walking time (minutesfiay−1); BOTMP-SF-Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (standard score))

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Anne Jobling

This longitudinal research examined the development of motor proficiency in 99 children with Down syndrome born in Brisbane from 1973 to 1984. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) was used to assess motor proficiency, and the Stanford-Binet L-M was used to obtain a measure of general intelligence. Although significant progress on the BOTMP subtest scores occurred with age for most subtests, this was related to mental age (MA) rather than chronological age (CA). Progress related to CA was associated with upper limb coordination and upper limb speed and dexterity subtests from CA 10 to 12 years, not from 12 to 16 years. There were considerable inter- and intraindividual differences on subtest items. A cluster analysis of 263 assessments revealed no one profile of strengths and weaknesses. Two distinct profiles were found with high scores in either the visual–motor or the running speed and agility subtests, with balance scores at a low level of proficiency in both clusters. Across the study groupings, sex differences were also evident.