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Renate M. Leithäuser and Ralph Beneke

) testosterone levels below 2.5 nmol·L –1 . UCI sharpened their regulations, increasing the period of GAMI from 12 to 24 months plus lowering maximum testosterone level from 5 to 2.5 nmol·L –1 . World Rugby decided that transgender women may not currently play women’s rugby. World Athletics (formerly IAAF

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Ana C. Santos-Mariano, Fabiano Tomazini, Cintia Rodacki, Romulo Bertuzzi, Fernando De-Oliveira, and Adriano E. Lima-Silva

in a real competition (warm-up, stretching, and coordination exercises). At 9:00 AM, the competition began, in accordance with the official rules of the World Athletics TM . The competition finished at ∼11:00 AM; the athletes then rested in the afternoon and returned to their training routines the

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Anna Posbergh

testosterone are more embedded in certain contexts than others; the role of organizations in conjunction with scientists (such as World Athletics in their “Athleticism” chapter) in producing particular knowledge; and why, despite the harms of testosterone-centered sport policies, many women athletes continue

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Jörg Krieger, Lindsay Parks Pieper, and Ian Ritchie

to perceived problems in their specific sports, international federations often act before the IOC, consequently influencing the ways in which Olympic governors eventually respond. For example, when the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF; since 2019 called World Athletics

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Mark A. Robinson

target level may be required for other sports if used for goal-setting purposes. For instance, between 1990 and 2020, world records in Olympic events improved 3.31 times more in swimming ( M  = 4.51%, SD  = 1.20; USA Swimming, n.d. ) than in track athletics ( M  = 1.36%, SD  = 1.24; World Athletics

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Salma Alabdulwahed, Natalia Galán-López, Tom Hill, Lewis J. James, Bryna Catherine Rose Chrismas, Sebastien Racinais, Trent Stellingwerff, Diogo V. Leal, Matheus Hausen, Karim Chamari, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Christopher Esh, and Lee Taylor

enhance performance. Translation of HA evidence-based recommendations to elite/professional practice is challenging for a host of logistical, practical, and/or financial reasons/barriers. 13 Indeed, 15% (World Athletics [WA] Championships Beijing 2015 14 ), 63% (WA Championships Doha 2019 15 ), and 38

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Tomás T. Freitas, Pedro E. Alcaraz, Ciro Winckler, Santiago Zabaloy, Lucas A. Pereira, and Irineu Loturco

Sprint races (ie, 100 and 200 m) are among the most exciting events in both the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Every 4 years, the fastest men and women in the world compete for a chance to write their names in the history books as Olympic heroes. According to the official data by World Athletics

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Shana E. Harrington, Sean McQueeney, and Marcus Fearing

. Sports injuries surveillance during the 2007 IAAF World Athletics Championships . Clin J Sport Med . 2009 ; 19 ( 1 ): 26 – 32 . doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e318191c8e7 19124980 10.1097/JSM.0b013e318191c8e7 11. Alonso J-M , Tscholl PM , Engebretsen L , Mountjoy M , Dvorak J , Junge A

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Nikola Grafnetterova

; the participation rate has been growing at a rate of 15% every year since the mid-1990s ( World Athletics, n.d. ). For an event to be considered a trail race, it must occur in a natural environment and contain less than 20% of paved roads ( International Trail Running Association, 2013 ). According to

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Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado, Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, and Jordan Santos-Concejero

record. In addition, the athlete qualified for and competed in the 1500 and 5000 m at the World Championship in Doha . He made the final of the 5000 m, finishing 12th and the semifinal of the 1500 m. He is currently ranked 14th over 1500 and 5000 m and 16th over 10,000 m, in the official World Athletics