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Long-Distance Triathletes’ Intentions to Manipulate Energy and Macronutrient Intake Over a Training Macrocycle

Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich, and Jasmine Thomson

, of those 74% believed they had reduced carbohydrate intake, whereas only 26% believed they had reduced energy intake. Almost half of the participants (46%) reported trying race-week diet strategies to improve their previous performance (Figure  1b ), with carbohydrate loading the most popular (43

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Blood Glucose Responses to Carbohydrate Feeding Prior to Exercise in the Heat: Effects of Hypohydration and Rehydration

Marcos Echegaray, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh, Deborah Riebe, Robert W. Kenefick, John W. Castellani, Stavros Kavouras, and Douglas Casa

This study assessed the plasma glucose (PG) and hormonal responses to carbohydrate ingestion, prior to exercise in the heat, in a hypohydrated state versus partial rehydration with intravenous solutions. On separate days, 8 subjects (21.0 ± 1.8 years; 57.3 ± 3.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1) exercised at 50% V̇O2maxin a 33 °C environment until a 4% body weight loss was achieved. Following this, subjects were rehydrated (25 ml · kg−1) with either: 0.45% IV saline (45IV), 0.9% IV saline (9IV), or no fluid (NF). Subjects then ingested 1 g · kg−1 of carbohydrate and underwent an exercise test (treadmill walking, 50% V̇O2max, 36 °C) for up to 90 min. Compared to pre-exercise level (294 mg · dl−1), PG increased significantly (>124 mg · dl−1) at 15 min of the exercise test in all trials and remained significantly elevated for 75 min in NF, 30 min more than in the 2 rehydration trials. Although serum Insulin increased significantly at 15 min of exercise in the 45IV trial (7.2 ± 1.2 vs. 23.7 ± 4.7 μIU · ml−1) no significant differences between trials were observed. Peak plasma norepinephrine was significantly higher in NF (640 ± 66 pg · ml−1) compared to the 45IV and 9IV trials (472 ± 55 and 474 ± 52 pg · ml−1, respectively). In conclusion, ingestion of a small solid carbohydrate load prior to exercise in the 4% hypohydration level resulted in prolonged high PG concentration compared to partial IV rehydration.

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Toward a Common Understanding of Diet–Exercise Strategies to Manipulate Fuel Availability for Training and Competition Preparation in Endurance Sport

Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff, and Ronald J. Maughan

Championships to a version of the CHO supercompensation diet described by Hermansen et al. ( 1967 ). The final outcome of this work was the introduction of the term “carbohydrate loading” into the general lexicon, with such popularity that it would become almost synonymous with sports nutrition. It is unlikely

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Reduced Glucose Tolerance and Skeletal Muscle GLUT4 and IRS1 Content in Cyclists Habituated to a Long-Term Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith, and Tertius A. Kohn

in heart disease, obesity, and T2D ( Ludwig et al., 2018 ). A few days of consuming the LCHF diet can increase postprandial blood glucose concentrations in healthy individuals and reduce the capacity of skeletal muscle to oxidize a carbohydrate load, suggesting a typical state of poor glucose

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Sport Science: Progress, Hubris, and Humility

Carl Foster

, 32 and came up with the basic outline for carbohydrate loading that was used by athletes for many years. 33 Later work by Sherman et al 34 demonstrated that the prolonged period of glycogen depletion could be shortened without loss of effect. van Ingen Schenau et al 35 and de Koning et al, 36

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Macronutrient Intakes of Male Rugby Union Players: A Review

Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black, and Dane Frances Baker

effects of carbohydrate loading (70% of energy from carbohydrate) on muscle glycogen stores. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 15 university rugby players prematch (at least 48 hr prior to the match) and postmatch (immediately following a rugby match). This was a parallel intervention study with the

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The Precompetition Macronutrient Intake of Elite Gaelic Football Players

Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins, and Marcus Shortall

). Carbohydrates for training and competition . Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 ( Suppl. 1 ), 17 – 27 . doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.585473 Bussau , V.A. , Fairchild , T.J. , Rao , A. , Steele , P. , & Fournier , P.A. ( 2002 ). Carbohydrate loading in human muscle: An improved 1 day protocol . European

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Dietary Intake and Gastrointestinal Integrity in Runners Undertaking High-Intensity Exercise in the Heat

Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Maree Gleeson, Alice Wallett, Warren A. McDonald, Kate L. Pumpa, and David B. Pyne

sports nutrition guidelines prior to the exercise. However, it is unclear whether manipulating the diet (such as carbohydrate loading) prior to an endurance event would offer protective benefits, comparable to ingesting carbohydrates during exercise, against exercise-induced GI perturbations. The

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Increased Meal Frequency With Exercise Mitigates Postprandial Triacylglycerol

Jesudas E. Menon, David J. Stensel, Keith Tolfrey, and Stephen F. Burns

T , Reaven GM . Effect of variations in oral fat and carbohydrate load on postprandial lipemia . Am J Clin Nutr . 1995 ; 62 ( 6 ): 1201 – 1205 . PubMed ID: 7491880 doi:10.1093/ajcn/62.6.1201 10.1093/ajcn/62.6.1201 7491880 11. Langsted A , Freiberg JJ , Nordestgaard BG . Fasting and

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Autonomic and Perceptual Responses to Induction of a Ketogenic Diet in Free-Living Endurance Athletes: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

Ed Maunder, Deborah K. Dulson, and David M. Shaw

-013-0071-8 10.1007/s40279-013-0071-8 12. Havemann L , West SJ , Goedecke JH , et al . Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate loading compromises high-intensity sprint performance . J Appl Physiol . 2006 ; 100 : 194 – 202 . PubMed ID: 16141377 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00813.2005 16141377 10