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Dorene Ciletti, John Lanasa, Diane Ramos, Ryan Luchs and Junying Lou

Based on a review of North American professional sports teams, this study provides insight on how teams are communicating commitment to sustainability principles and practices on their Web sites. Web sites for 126 teams across 4 different leagues were examined for content relative to triple-bottom-line dimensions. Global Reporting Initiative indicator codes and definitions were constructs for the model and aligned to social, environmental, and economic principles for categories of sustainability practices. Although teams are including sustainability information on their Web sites, the vast majority downplay economic issues and highlight social issues on their home pages and subsequent pages; communication about environmental factors varies by league. The study shows differences across leagues and suggests that although some teams are communicating a commitment to sustainability, others may not be considering stakeholder perceptions of their Web-site communications or whether sustainability efforts affect public consumption of league offerings or attitudes toward professional sports.

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Daniel Bjärsholm

Social entrepreneurship represents a new organizational form reflecting a time of societal change. The concept of social entrepreneurship has in recent years received an increased academic interest from the field of sport management. This review therefore aims to outline the scope and focus of, as well as theoretically position, the utilization of the concept of social entrepreneurship in the current body of peer-reviewed research within the field of sport and social entrepreneurship. Thirty-three English language peer-reviewed articles were selected and analyzed using Gartner’s (1985) variables of entrepreneurship and three schools of thought within social entrepreneurship. The findings show that the scope of research into sport and social entrepreneurship is limited and that sport plays a minor role in the articles. The articles focus on the processes of social entrepreneurship, but the manner in which the concept of social entrepreneurship is used differs between articles and is seldom defined. These findings indicate that much can be done to better understand sport and social entrepreneurship. Emerging directions for future research are provided.

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Lisa Kihl, Kathy Babiak and Scott Tainsky

As corporate community initiatives (CCI) in sport are becoming an important dimension of corporate social responsibility, a key issue is evaluating the quality of the processes by which they are delivered and how they are managed. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation process of a professional sport team’s CCI using program evaluation theory (Chen, 2005). Interviews were conducted with 42 key stakeholders (team executives, partnership implementers, participants, parents, coaches) from one Major League Baseball team’s CCI to understand critical processes involved in CCI implementation and execution. The findings showed concerns in the quality of program implementation with the: 1) the partnership agreement, 2) the ecological context, 3) protocol and implementation, and 4) target population. We propose an iterative model of program evaluation for use in the sport context. We conclude the paper with recommendations for further research in this area and implications for practitioners.

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Yuhei Inoue, Aubrey Kent and Seoki Lee

Despite the acknowledged importance of investigating the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) within a single industry, very few studies have examined this relationship in the context of the sport industry. Using charitable giving data as a proxy of CSR, this study investigated if CSR would affect CFP of professional sport teams within the four major U.S. leagues. Although the positive CSR-CFP relationship was hypothesized based on instrumental stakeholder theory, CSR was found to have non-positive effects on CFP. These results are still notable since they may highlight the importance of the connectedness between CSR and team operations and the awareness of CSR activity among stakeholders in leveraging CSR benefits. Overall, through the use of improved methodology, the current study furthers the understanding of the CSR-CFP relationship among the U.S. professional teams.

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Dimitrios Kolyperas, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Simon Chadwick and Leigh Sparks

Despite the increasing number and significance of charitable foundations in various business sectors, their role in cocreating corporate social responsibility (CSR) value remains unclear. This paper identifies CSR value cocreation in professional team sport organizations (PTSOs) and answers three key research questions: (a) Why have PTSOs developed charitable foundations as their means toward CSR value cocreation? (b) What CSR-related resources do PTSOs and their charitable foundations integrate? and (c) How do they manage, share, and transfer such resources to cocreate CSR value? Drawing theoretical insights from service dominant logic and consumer culture theory—and using empirical data from 47 semistructured interviews of UK-based professional football (soccer) clubs—this study develops a communicating vessels framework to illustrate the role of charitable foundations in the CSR value cocreation process. Through four tentative CSR value cocreation levels of relationship (bolt-on, cooperative, controlled, and strategic) the study suggests several internal strategies that can enhance the level of collaboration between founders and foundations. These include information sharing through customer relationship management (CRM) systems and social media platforms; staff sharing or flexible movement across the organizations; quality assurance agreements; flexible team cooperation; partnership protocols with social, media, cultural, and commercial stakeholders; and cotraining of personnel.

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Ted Hayduk III and Matt Walker

survivors of a critical illness: An interview study . Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 20 ( 5 ), 257 – 263 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15450614?dopt=Abstract doi:10.1016/j.iccn.2004.06.005 Adetunji , O.J. , & Ogbonna , I.G. ( 2013 ). Corporate social responsibility as a recruitment

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whether the measured societal value was communicated or not and by what mechanism it was communicated. This research provides important new insight into corporate-cause relationships and the approaches used to communicate social value of corporate social responsibility. Given that increasing donations is

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Eddie T.C. Lam

approach to social responsibility found in seminal work on corporate social responsibility (e.g.,  Carroll, 1979 , 1991 ) and current industry measures. They provide a chart to identify instrumental and integrative views of social responsibility in sport and show how the role of governance (to provide

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Velina B. Brackebusch

, corporate social responsibility (CSR), and enterprise and innovation all connect. In the editors’ own words, “More and more conversations appear to be occurring between those of us who teach and research in the areas of Sport Development, Sport and Society, and Sport Business Management” (p. xii). Their

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Braden Norris

for what is contributing to this decrease and who is responsible in the attempt to turn the trend around. Corporate social responsibility is covered in another chapter (i.e., Chapter 10) by other contributors (i.e., Geraldine Zeimers, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Thierry Zintz, and Annick Willem) but is