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Vassilios Ziakas, Christine Lundberg, and Giorgos Sakkas

-creation is the cultivation of a safe space to foster dialogue through metaphoric discourse ( Cohen, 1998 ; Manning, 1981 ; Rasnake, 1986 ). Attendees can be engaged in conversations that are ostensibly about the event and also explore socio-political or existential issues ( Chalip, 2006 ). Such discourses

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Dawn E. Trussell

other adult role models (e.g., coaches)—and particularly men. This finding is significant considering the history of sport as a hegemonic institution of social exclusion ( Fink, 2016 ). It may also speak to how important dominant parenting ideologies of “concerted cultivation” (see foundational work by

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Gareth J. Jones, Elizabeth Taylor, Christine Wegner, Colin Lopez, Heather Kennedy, and Anthony Pizzo

aspects of sport event management? (b) How did government-led implementation influence the cultivation of direct social impacts? (c) How did government-led implementation influence social leveraging strategies associated with long-term social outcomes? Methodology Given the dearth of empirical work on

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Joon Ho Lim, Leigh Anne Donovan, Peter Kaufman, and Chiharu Ishida

effort by a person to modify his or her inner states or responses, including actions, thoughts, feelings, and task performances ( Baumeister, Vohs, & Tice, 2007 ). It has been argued that such efforts are core to human functioning and promote individual and cultural growth through the cultivation of

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Matt R. Huml, Marion E. Hambrick, Mary A. Hums, and Calvin Nite

length of the preseason doesn’t allow for team bonding and cultivation of team chemistry. Even for nonfall sports, coaches believed the lack of time available prior to the fall semester removed potential opportunities to build team cohesion, which is especially important for the incoming first

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Gareth J. Jones, Christine E. Wegner, Kyle S. Bunds, Michael B. Edwards, and Jason N. Bocarro

local skills and knowledge ( Jones, Edwards, Bocarro, Bunds, & Smith, 2017 ). The efficacy of this process is contingent upon the empowerment of local communities, which requires the cultivation of local leaders to communicate goals, mobilize resources, and collectively guide projects in the long term

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Damien Whitburn, Adam Karg, and Paul Turner

with a lack of evaluation limiting evidence-led strategy adoption and therefore limiting the cultivation of positive consumer intentions or outcomes toward organization goals ( Bayle & Madella, 2002 ; Winand et al., 2010 ), so any advances in investigating performance are welcome in this context. In

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Fabian Kautz, Michael Schaffrath, and Alex C. Gang

cultivation of fan relations and the dissemination of exclusive information and offers (Sinner, 2013). Sport organizations can directly involve their users by using social media to distribute content that fans have created. The content produced by users provides convenient opportunities for organizations to