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Filipe Jesus, Mónica Sousa, Catarina L. Nunes, Ruben Francisco, Paulo Rocha, Cláudia S. Minderico, Luís B. Sardinha, and Analiza M. Silva

et al., 2010 ). Deuterium dilution technique using a stable Hydra gas isotope ratio mass spectrometer (PDZ, Europa Scientific) was used to determine TBW with a dose of deuterium oxide solution (2H 2 O) as described elsewhere ( Santos et al., 2010 ; Schoeller et al., 1980 ). The CV for TBW in our

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Samuel R. Heaselgrave, Joe Blacker, Benoit Smeuninx, James McKendry, and Leigh Breen

, et al . Skeletal muscle hypertrophy adaptations predominate in the early stages of resistance exercise training, matching deuterium oxide-derived measures of muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling . FASEB J . 2015 ; 29 ( 11 ): 4485 – 4496 . PubMed ID

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Victoria C. Edwards, Stephen D. Myers, Sophie L. Wardle, Andrew G. Siddall, Steven D. Powell, Sarah Needham-Beck, Sarah S. Kefyalew, Priya A. Singh, Elise R. Orford, Michelle C. Venables, Sarah Jackson, Julie P. Greeves, and Sam D. Blacker

data collection, baseline urine samples were collected. Following the collection of baseline urine, participants drank a single bolus dose of DLW ( 2 H 2 18 O) containing 174 mg/kg body weight deuterium oxide (Cambridge Isotope Laboratories Inc., Tewksbury, MA) and 70 mg/kg body weight 18-Oxygen

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker, and Matthew D. Vukovich

resistance exercise training, matching deuterium oxide-derived measures of muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling . FASEB Journal, 29 ( 11 ), 4485 – 4496 . doi:10.1096/fj.15-273755 Campbell , B.I. , Aguilar , D. , Conlin , L. , Vargas , A. , Schoenfeld

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Javier T. Gonzalez and Andy J. King

). Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide . Journal of Applied Physiology, 104 ( 4 ), 944 – 951 . 18187615 10.1152/japplphysiol.00752.2007 Coggan , A.R. ( 1999 ). Use of stable

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard, and Louise M. Burke

Deuterium oxide dilution a Accuracy and reliability Resources required (cost, equipment, and expertise) and long equilibration time (several hours) requiring rest Bioelectric impedance analysis Noninvasive and some models validated against reference method Equipment cost, some level of expertise required to

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles, and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

). Creatine supplementation increases total body water in soccer players: A deuterium oxide dilution study . International Journal of Sports Medicine, 37 ( 2 ), 149 – 153 . PubMed de Oliveira , E.P. , Burini , R.C. , & Jeukendrup , A. ( 2014 ). Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Pascale Young, Samantha K. Gill, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Stephanie Gaskell, Isabella Russo, and Louise M. Burke

methods should be used. These include multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with established validation against total body water determination through deuterium oxide and mass spectrometry analysis, or blood-based measurements such as plasma osmolality and/or plasma volume change. The strengths