The present study showed that amenorrheic athletes (AAs) scored higher on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) (p < .05) than eumenorrheic athletes (EAs), indicating more aberrant eating patterns in the first group. Scores on the EAT were inversely correlated with fat intake (p < .05), simple carbohydrate intake (p < .01), and percentage saturation of iron (p < .05) and were positively correlated with total iron binding capacity (p < .01) for the total sample. Physiological assessment of athletes revealed that there were no significant differences between groups in serum lipoproteins, with both EAs and AAs having serum lipid profiles indicative of low cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the only lipoprotein significantly and positively correlated with serum estradiol levels for the entire sample (p = .01). The present study was in agreement with previous work showing that scores on the EAT represent a primary difference between EAs and AAs; the present study was somewhat different than previous work in that serum lipoproteins were not significantly related to menstrual status.
Arlette C. Perry, Linda S. Crane, Brooks Applegate, Sylvia Marquez-Sterling, Joseph F. Signorile, and Paul C. Miller
Katherine A. Beals and Melinda M. Manore
The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below (-5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by strict dietary rules, accompanied by extreme feelings of guilt and self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.
Pablo M. García-Rovés, Nicolàs Terrados, Serafina Fernández, and Angeles M. Patterson
The dietary intake and eating behavior of a group of professional elite road cyclists during high intensity training and competition was compared. Their eating pattern consisted of several snacks throughout the race or training, a meal eaten no later than 1 hr postexercise, supper, and breakfast. Protein intake showed a significant difference between evaluation times expressed in three ways: per total amount intake, by kg body weight, and percentage of energy supplied. Due to the high energy intake of these cyclists during training and competition (22.9 ± 1.5, 22.4 ± 1.7 MJ, respectively), they presented a high consumption of each macronutrient both in competition and in training. The eating behavior of these athletes was similar during breakfast (possibility to choose from among approximately 25 foods) and supper (set menu), with variation in the energy intake and a similar relative contribution of the different macronutrients. In general, it is possible to consider the professional road cyclists as a homogeneous group with a similar nutrition intake, eating habits, and nutritional needs throughout the more demanding periods of the season. Furthermore, differences found in protein intake between periods could not be explained by differences in the food available in competition and training periods.
Ben Desbrow, Joanna McCormack, Louise M. Burke, Gregory R. Cox, Kieran Fallon, Matthew Hislop, Ruth Logan, Nello Marino, Susan M. Sawyer, Greg Shaw, Anita Star, Helen Vidgen, and Michael Leveritt
It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies.
Beth Glace, Christine Murphy, and Malachy McHugh
The purpose of this study was to document eating strategies employed by runners during a 160-km race, and to identify eating patterns that predispose the runner to disturbed mental or gastrointestinal functioning. We monitored intake in 19 volunteers during the 12 hours pre-race. Intake was determined by interview with runners approximately every 12 km throughout the race. The mean finish time was 24.3 hours, with 4 runners not completing the race. Body mass decreased during the race, 75.9 ± 2.3 kg to 74.4 ± 2.2 kg (p < .001). Runners ingested 2643 kcals during the 12 hours prerace (68% carbohydrate) and 3.8 L of fluid. During the race 6047 kcal, 18 L of fluid, and 12 g of sodium were consumed. Gastrointestinal distress (GI) was experienced by half of the participants, but was unrelated to food or fluid intake. Upper GI symptoms were more prevalent than lower and occurred mainly after 88 km. Runners with GI distress tended to complete fewer training miles (p = .10) and to do shorter training runs (p = .08). Half of the volunteers reported mental status changes (MSC), such as confusion or dizziness. Runners with MSC had greater intake of total calories, carbohydrate, and fluid (p < .05) than runners without MSC. They also completed shorter training runs (p = .03). Caloric and moisture intake for all runners far exceeded intakes described previously. Although intake did not match energy expenditure, it may represent the upper limit for absorption during exercise, and very high food and/or fluid intake appears to lead to perturbed mental status.
Stephanie M. Miller, Sonja Kukuljan, Anne I. Turner, Paige van der Pligt, and Gaele Ducher
Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes’ health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of regularly exercising adult women in Australia toward eating patterns, menstrual cycles, and bone health.
A total of 191 female exercisers, age 18–40 yr, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After 11 surveys were excluded (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorized into lean-build sports (n = 82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non-lean-build sports (n = 94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football), or gym/fitness activities (n = 4).
Mean (± SD) training volume was 9.0 ± 5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhea (absence of menses for ≥3 months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhea (vs. 3.2% in non-lean-build sports, p = .005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhea, and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhea (all p < .005).
Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure that appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhea.
Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Antti A. Mero, Arja Leena Tuulia Uusitalo, and Trent Stellingwerff
We investigated one week of dietary microperiodization in elite female (n = 23) and male (n = 15) runners and race-walkers by examining the frequency of training sessions and recovery periods conducted with recommended carbohydrate (CHO) and protein availability. Food and training diaries were recorded in relation to HARD (intense or >90min sessions; KEY) versus RECOVERY days (other-than KEY sessions; EASY). The targets for amount and timing of CHO and protein around KEY sessions were based on current nutrition recommendations. Relative daily energy and CHO intake was significantly (p < .05) higher in males (224 ± 26 kJ/kg/d, 7.3 ± 1.4 g/kg/d CHO) than females (204 ± 29 kJ/kg/d, 6.2 ± 1.1 g/kg/d CHO) on HARD days. However, when adjusted for training volume (km), there was no sex-based difference in CHO intake daily (HARD: 0.42 ± 0.14 vs 0.39 ± 0.15 g/kg/km). Females appeared to periodize energy and protein intake with greater intakes on HARD training days (204 ± 29 vs 187 ± 35 kJ/kg/d, p = .004; 2.0 ± 0.3 vs 1.9 ± 0.3 g/kg/d protein, p = .013), while males did not periodize intakes. Females showed a pattern of periodization of postexercise CHO for KEY vs EASY (0.9 ± 0.4 vs 0.5 ± 0.3 g/kg; p < .05) while males had higher intakes but only modest periodization (1.3 ± 0.9 vs 1.0 ± 0.4; p = .32). There was only modest evidence from female athletes of systematic microperiodization of eating patterns to meet contemporary sports nutrition guidelines. While this pattern of periodization was absent in males, in general they consumed more energy and CHO daily and around training sessions compared with females. Elite endurance athletes do not seem to systematically follow the most recent sports nutrition guidelines of periodized nutrition.
Justine J. Reel, Leslie Podlog, Lindsey Hamilton, Lindsey Greviskes, Dana K. Voelker, and Cara Gray
?”) and eating patterns (i.e., “How has having an injury affected your eating patterns?”). Probes were used to encourage interviewees to delve deeper in responses and elaborate on ways to improve support for injured dancers. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim for theme identification
Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Richard F. MacLehose, Allison W. Watts, Marla E. Eisenberg, Melissa N. Laska, and Nicole Larson
sector. Although gentle classes may not directly result in large energy expenditure, there may be indirect benefits such as changes in eating patterns as a result of greater body awareness, stress management, and self-care, which could lead to lower energy intake. Furthermore, participating in gentle
Lindsay E. Kipp, Nicole D. Bolter, and Alison Phillips Reichter
athletes’ well-being, namely self-esteem and healthy eating patterns, we used self-determination theory (SDT [ 25 , 26 ]), which states that the social context influences various aspects of well-being via satisfaction of 3 psychological needs: perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness. In line with