The aim of this study was to test the predictions of attentional control theory using the quiet eye period as an objective measure of attentional control. Ten basketball players took free throws in two counterbalanced experimental conditions designed to manipulate the anxiety they experienced. Point of gaze was measured using an ASL Mobile Eye tracker and fixations including the quiet eye were determined using frame-by-frame analysis. The manipulation of anxiety resulted in significant reductions in the duration of the quiet eye period and free throw success rate, thus supporting the predictions of attentional control theory. Anxiety impaired goal-directed attentional control (quiet eye period) at the expense of stimulus-driven control (more fixations of shorter duration to various targets). The findings suggest that attentional control theory may be a useful theoretical framework for examining the relationship between anxiety and performance in visuomotor sport skills.
Mark R. Wilson, Samuel J. Vine, and Greg Wood
Samira Moeinirad, Behrouz Abdoli, Alireza Farsi, and Nasour Ahmadi
this information with the knowledge available for decision making or controlling motor responses ( Klostermann, 2016 ; Klostermann & Moeinirad, 2020 ). Gaze behavior is considered to be one of the performance-related perceptual skills. Recently, eye registration techniques have been used in sports
Jason C. Laffer, Aaron J. Coutts, and Job Fransen
method of assessing perceptual–cognitive ability ( Travassos et al., 2013 ; Vaeyens et al., 2007 ) as it allows for the real time assessment of a performer’s visual selective attention through the tracking of gaze behavior, using measures such as gaze location, duration of gaze fixations and frequency
The goal of this study was to investigate the visual spotting hypothesis in 10 experts and 10 apprentices as they perform back aerial somersaults from a standing position with no preparatory jumps (short flight duration condition) and after some preparatory jumps with a flight time of 1s (long flight duration condition). Differences in gaze behavior and kinematics were expected between experts and apprentices and between experimental conditions. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Experts exhibited a smaller landing deviation from the middle of the trampoline bed than apprentices. Experts showed higher fixation ratios during the take-off and flight phase. Experts exhibited no blinks in any of the somersaults in both conditions, whereas apprentices showed significant blink ratios in both experimental conditions. The findings suggest that gymnasts can use visual spotting during the back aerial somersault, even when the time of flight is delimited. We conclude that knowledge about gaze–movement relationships may help coaches develop specific training programs in the learning process of the back aerial somersault.
Mark R. Wilson, Greg Wood, and Samuel J. Vine
The current study sought to test the predictions of attentional control theory (ACT) in a sporting environment. Fourteen experienced footballers took penalty kicks under low- and high-threat counterbalanced conditions while wearing a gaze registration system. Fixations to target locations (goalkeeper and goal area) were determined using frame-by-frame analysis. When anxious, footballers made faster first fixations and fixated for significantly longer toward the goalkeeper. This disruption in gaze behavior brought about significant reductions in shooting accuracy, with shots becoming significantly centralized and within the goalkeeper’s reach. These findings support the predictions of ACT, as anxious participants were more likely to focus on the “threatening” goalkeeper, owing to an increased influence of the stimulus-driven attentional control system.
.2.145 Expertise Differences in Cortical Activation and Gaze Behavior during Rifle Shooting Christopher M. Janelle * Charles H. Hillman * Ross J. Apparies * Nicholas P. Murray * Launi Meili * Elizabeth A. Fallon * Bradley D. Hatfield * 6 2000 22 2 167 182 10.1123/jsep.22.2.167 Reexamining the
ORIGINAL RESEARCH Gaze Behaviors During Serve Returns in Tennis: A Comparison Between Intermediate- and High-Skill Players Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano * Itay Basevitch * Gershon Tenenbaum * 1 04 2018 40 2 49 59 10.1123/jsep.2017-0253 jsep.2017-0253 The Development and Psychometric Properties of
Laurence S. Warren-West and Robin C. Jackson
across each time of occlusion and to identify the point at which responses are most biased toward judging actions to be genuine. Alongside establishing the time window in which players become deceived, analysis of visual gaze behavior can provide insights into the visual sources of information that
Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, and Serge Brand
designed to allow players to receive video feedback of their own gaze behavior. First, the participants watched the vision control of an expert prototype on a screen. Next, they were shown visual data for their own movements, and they were asked to examine the difference between their visual control and
Greg Wood, Samuel J. Vine, Johnny Parr, and Mark R. Wilson
predisposition to focus on the gaze of others can be exploited through the use of deceptive gaze behaviors that aim to disguise the deceiver’s future intentions ( Emery, 2000 ). Such deceptive behaviors are readily observable in sport ( Güldenpenning, Kunde, & Weigelt, 2017 ). In a sporting context, these