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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff, and Ronald J. Maughan

). Ketogenic LCHF (K-LCHF) diet • Dietary plan in which chronic ketosis is achieved by severely restricted CHO intake and moderate protein intake. Fats, principally saturated and monounsaturated, contribute the major energy source. • Typical intake = <5% energy from CHO (<50 g/day), 15–20% protein, and 75

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Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith, and Tertius A. Kohn

: 942051 doi:10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3 Bueno , N.B. , de Melo , I.S. , de Oliveira , S.L. , & da Rocha Ataide , T. ( 2013 ). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials . The

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, J Roche 4. Metabolic enzyme adaptations to long-term feeding of ketogenic diet containing medium-chain triglyceride in rats A Fukazawa, T Karasawa, Y Yokota, S Kondo, S Terada 5. Energy availability estimated in free-living conditions positively correlated with peak progesterone concentration in the

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen, and Deborah K. Dulson

ingestion of ketone supplements, specifically salts and esters, have shown to induce hyperketonemia within 30 min ( Stubbs et al., 2017 ), thus allowing the effect of KBs to be delineated from the interference to changes in substrate availability and metabolism resulting from alternative ketogenic

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

and FR groups. Finally, following a 30-day ketogenic diet (only 22 g carbohydrate per day), elite artistic gymnasts lost ∼1.9 kg fat mass, and a small but nonsignificant increase in LBM was observed, with no significant differences in strength tests ( Paoli et al., 2012 ). Thus, it is possible to

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton, and Louise M. Burke

% energy from CHO to prevent ketosis while reducing CHO intake to levels below the fuel costs of daily training) and the more restrictive ketogenic LCHF diet (K-LCHF: typically <50 g/day CHO and 75–80% fat; Burke et al., 2018 ). However, studies have shown that as little as 5 days of exposure to HFLC

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Megan A. Kuikman, Margo Mountjoy, Trent Stellingwerff, and Jamie F. Burr

focus on carbohydrate over other macronutrients. In elite male and female race walkers, 3.5 weeks of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (0.5 g·kg −1 ·day −1 carbohydrate, 2.1 g·kg −1 ·day −1 protein, 75%–80% of energy from fat) resulted in markers of impaired bone turnover, including

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Rachel McCormick, Alex Dreyer, Brian Dawson, Marc Sim, Leanne Lester, Carmel Goodman, and Peter Peeling

– 2155 . PubMed ID: 31058762 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002026 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002026 McKay , A.K. , Peeling , P. , Pyne , D.B. , Welvaert , M. , Tee , N. , Leckey , J.J. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2019 ). Chronic adherence to a ketogenic diet modifies iron metabolism in elite athletes

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Luiz L. Loureiro, Tathiany J. Ferreira, Camila S.C. da Costa, Tatiana K.S. Fidalgo, Ana Paula Valente, and Anna Paola T.R. Pierucci

ketone bodies decreased in high-intensity weeks and increased in low-intensity week. Despite the expected result being an increase in ketone bodies and a reduction in ketogenic amino acids, it is possible that these findings reflect the lack of analysis before and after training on the same day. 2 , 4

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan, and Matthew J. McAllister

implications of ketone bodies: The effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: Ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism . Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids, 70 ( 3 ), 309 – 319 . doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.09.007 10.1016/j.plefa.2003