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Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith, and Tertius A. Kohn

: 942051 doi:10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3 Bueno , N.B. , de Melo , I.S. , de Oliveira , S.L. , & da Rocha Ataide , T. ( 2013 ). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials . The

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, J Roche 4. Metabolic enzyme adaptations to long-term feeding of ketogenic diet containing medium-chain triglyceride in rats A Fukazawa, T Karasawa, Y Yokota, S Kondo, S Terada 5. Energy availability estimated in free-living conditions positively correlated with peak progesterone concentration in the

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen, and Deborah K. Dulson

ingestion of ketone supplements, specifically salts and esters, have shown to induce hyperketonemia within 30 min ( Stubbs et al., 2017 ), thus allowing the effect of KBs to be delineated from the interference to changes in substrate availability and metabolism resulting from alternative ketogenic

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

and FR groups. Finally, following a 30-day ketogenic diet (only 22 g carbohydrate per day), elite artistic gymnasts lost ∼1.9 kg fat mass, and a small but nonsignificant increase in LBM was observed, with no significant differences in strength tests ( Paoli et al., 2012 ). Thus, it is possible to

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton, and Louise M. Burke

% energy from CHO to prevent ketosis while reducing CHO intake to levels below the fuel costs of daily training) and the more restrictive ketogenic LCHF diet (K-LCHF: typically <50 g/day CHO and 75–80% fat; Burke et al., 2018 ). However, studies have shown that as little as 5 days of exposure to HFLC

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Megan A. Kuikman, Margo Mountjoy, Trent Stellingwerff, and Jamie F. Burr

focus on carbohydrate over other macronutrients. In elite male and female race walkers, 3.5 weeks of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (0.5 g·kg −1 ·day −1 carbohydrate, 2.1 g·kg −1 ·day −1 protein, 75%–80% of energy from fat) resulted in markers of impaired bone turnover, including

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Rachel McCormick, Alex Dreyer, Brian Dawson, Marc Sim, Leanne Lester, Carmel Goodman, and Peter Peeling

– 2155 . PubMed ID: 31058762 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002026 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002026 McKay , A.K. , Peeling , P. , Pyne , D.B. , Welvaert , M. , Tee , N. , Leckey , J.J. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2019 ). Chronic adherence to a ketogenic diet modifies iron metabolism in elite athletes

Open access

Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke

, J.J. , … Swinkels , D.W. ( 2019a ). Chronic adherence to a ketogenic diet modifies iron metabolism in elite athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 51 ( 3 ), 548 – 555 . doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001816 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001816 Nemeth , E. , Rivera , S. , Gabayan , V

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Alannah K.A. McKay, Rachel McCormick, Nicolin Tee, and Peter Peeling

Exercise Metabolism, 31 ( 2 ), 101 – 108 . doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0224 10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0224 McKay , A.K.A , Peeling , P. , Pyne , D.B. , Welvaert , M. , Tee , N. , Leckey , J.J. , … Swinkels , D.W. ( 2019a ). Chronic adherence to a ketogenic diet modifies iron metabolism in elite

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan, and Matthew J. McAllister

implications of ketone bodies: The effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: Ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism . Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids, 70 ( 3 ), 309 – 319 . doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.09.007 10.1016/j.plefa.2003